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Virus Concept Classification and Applications

Biological Virus Concept Classification and Applications

A virus is a small, simple structure that contains only one type of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). It must be parasitic in living cells and multiply by replication.
A virus is a non-cellular life form. It consists of a long chain of nucleic acids and a protein shell. The virus has no own metabolic mechanism and no enzyme system. Therefore, the virus leaves the host cell and becomes a chemical substance that has no life activity and cannot reproduce on its own. Its replication, transcription, and translation capabilities are performed in the host cell. When it enters the host cell, it can use the material and energy in the cell to complete life activities and generate according to the genetic information contained in its own nucleic acid. A new generation of viruses like it.

Definition:    Unique infectious agent

Features:    Autonomous replication

Including:    Viruses, Viroids and Virions

Living conditions:    Living host cell

Propagation mode:    Infection

Application:    Vaccine, Cell Engineering, Genetic Engineering

Table of Content

    1. Concept Introduction

    2. Virus Classification

    3. Virus Applications

    4. Virus Concepts

Conceptual introduction to Viruses

A narrowly defined biological virus is a unique infectious agent. It is a tiny living body that can use host cells' nutrients to replicate its own DNA, RNA, and proteins, and other life components. Viruses in a broad sense are much more complicated, including pseudoviruses, viroids, and virions.

Among them, the pseudoviruses and viroids are only a simple ssRNA strand. Virion is a protein molecule similar to an enzyme. Therefore, it is difficult for biological viruses to have a definite and clear definition.

Biological viruses, whether they are virulent phages or mild phages, must be reproduced and reproduced in living host cells, using the host cell's nucleotides and amino acids to synthesize some components of themselves to assemble the next generation of individuals. And achieve their purpose.


The replicated biological virus lyses host cells and is released, infecting new host cells.
Although biological viruses will bring certain benefits to humans, for example, phage can be used to treat some bacterial infections; insect viruses can be used to treat and prevent some agricultural diseases and insect pests, but they are very harmful, such as HIV, rabies, etc. 
Danger of life: influenza virus, hepatitis virus, etc. will cause disease. TMV, potato Y virus will cause property damage to people.

A virus is a tiny organism that can spread and infect other organisms (in fact, because the virus itself cannot perform metabolism, it cannot be said that the virus is an organism to some extent). "Virus" is sometimes used to describe organisms that spread and infect eukaryotes; "phage" or "phagosomes" are used to describe organisms that spread between prokaryotes. The origin of the virus is not very clear.

What is the basic structure of virus?

The protein coat of a virus is called a capsid, and the genetic material is mostly RNA or DNA. Capsids and nucleic acids
The molecules are collectively referred to as the nucleocapsid. But taking HIV as an example, the surface of the virus is also surrounded by a cell membrane-like membrane and spike structures, which together with the capsid determine the specificity of the virus. There are also some enzymes: such as reverse transcriptase.

What is the Classification of Viruses?

Viruses are not only divided into plant viruses, animal viruses, and bacterial viruses. It is also structurally divided into: single-stranded RNA virus, double-stranded RNA virus, single-stranded DNA virus and double-stranded DNA virus
The life process of the virus is roughly divided into five steps: adsorption, injection (genetic material), synthesis (reverse transcription / integration into host cell DNA), assembly (using host cell transcription of RNA, translation of protein for reassembly), and release.
Because the virus will shorten the distance between cells, it is easy for cells to fuse together to form multinucleated cells, and then lyse.

Virus application

1. Inactivate virus to make vaccine
2. As a carrier in genetic engineering
3. Induction for cell fusion in cell engineering (inactivated virus)
Viral incubation period: Viral genes are replicated as host cells replicate and are not expressed. At this time, the number of viruses in the cell does not increase significantly.

What is the concept of Virus?

A virus is a special organism without a cellular structure. Their structure is very simple, consisting of a protein shell and genetic material inside. The virus cannot survive independently, and must live in the cells of other organisms. Once it leaves the living cell shell, it does not show any signs of life activity.
The individual virus is extremely small, and most of them can only be seen under an electron microscope.

What does Japan think of Viruses? 

Both adapted from real events. The virus is a natural enemy of human beings, which seems to be the consensus of all people. In the face of Ebola, taking precautions is the best defense available to mankind. This may also be one of the reasons why Japan is eager to introduce a deadly virus. During the Olympic Games, the population moved frequently. Once the virus spreads, the consequences will be disastrous. 

The largest outbreak in 27 years: How terrible is American anti-science?

This disrespect for science is likely to leave children unprotected when an infectious disease strikes. Vaccines are recognized by the scientific community around the world as the most effective immunization against infectious diseases. 

Ebola-how does the most powerful virus on earth peep at humans in the dark?

 The ultimate owners of those viruses are probably not bats or monkeys, but the Earth itself. All creatures on the earth have their own wisdom, and although they are silent, they must be well-versed. Sooner or later, human beings must learn that even the highest animals on the earth should not easily violate the forbidden areas of nature.

Virus and Flu

Flu is raging, is it useful to get a flu shot?

Influenza is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by influenza virus. Influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza and its complications.

SMEs focus on technology stories

Every day, 800 million viruses land on each square of land, and they change the human genome.

We know that a large number of various viruses are floating in our air, so what is the chance of our contact with the virus? 

A recent study explored this for the first time: Every day, hundreds of millions of viruses fall on every square meter of land. However, when you feel scalp tingling, you should also know about the following things: In addition to the disease epidemic, the virus has affected human evolution and the entire ecosystem.


Author's Bio

Doctor Shawna Reason, Virologist
Dr. Shawna Reason
Name: Shawna Reason

Education: MBBS, MD

Occupation: Medical Doctor / Virologist 

Specialization: Medical Science, Micro Biology / Virology, Natural Treatment

Experience: 15 Years as a Medical Practitioner

About Me | Linkedin | Quora Profile | Medium Profile | Twitter



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