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Longevity. Long Life Living Expectancy

Long-lived (Longevity). Lengthy Life Expectancy

Sometimes the term longevity is used as a synonym for demographic life expectancy. However, the term longevity is sometimes used only for people with a long lifetime, whereas the average number of years remaining at a given age is always statistically defined. In the case of cohorts, for example, the life expectancy of a population at birth is the same as the normal death aging of all persons born in a given year. The best way to think of longevity is to speak for the general hearing as "typical lifespan" and, where appropriate, to clarify particular statistical definitions.

Longevity Reflections

Longevity reflections have generally gone beyond the recognition of the brevity of human existence and include considering techniques for prolonging life.
For the scientific community as well as for travel authors, science fiction and utopian novels, longevity was an important issue. 

Due to incorrect or incomplete birth statistics, there have been many problems in authenticating the most extended human life ever through contemporary verification norms.
The spans in the past or future have been considerably higher than those confirmed by modern standards for fiction, legends, and folklore, and longevity narratives and unchecked claims to longevity are often referred to in the present.
A lifetime annuity is a way to ensure longevity.

Table of contents:

Key factors


Change over time

Longevity is limited

Myths of long life


Non-human biological longevity

  •            Currently living:
  •            Non-living:

Key factors

The evidence showed that the longevity of genetics and lifestyle options are based upon two significant variables.


Twin studies have estimated that about 20 to 30 percent of human lifetime variability may be linked to genetics, with the remainder being caused by individual behavior and modifiable environmental variables.
Although more than 200 gene variants of longevity were related to the US-Belgium-UK studies on human genetic variations, only a tiny percentage of the heritability of these variations are explained. 
A study in 2012 found that physical exercise, even in small quantities of leisure time, can last up to 4.5 years.

Blood sampling of centennial lymphoblastoid cell lines shows considerably more activity with the PARP (Poly ADP ribose polymerase) DNA repair protein than with cell lines of younger (20 to 70-year-old people) individuals.

Centennial lymphocytic cells have typical features of young men's cells, both in the ability to initiate a repair mechanism after H2O2 and in its gene expression.
These results indicate that increased PARP gene expression contributes to centenarians' longevity, consistent with the DNA aging harm hypothesis.

Change over time

Deaths of young and medium age were more frequent in pre-industrial times than they are now. This is due not to genetics, but to variables such as illness, accidents and malnutrition, mainly as the former was not usually treatable by the medicine of the pre-20th century. 
Birth deaths have been prevalent for females and many kids have not lived since childhood.

Moreover, most individuals who reached their ancient age would probably die rapidly from the above untreatable health issues. Despite that, there are many examples, including Benjamin Franklin, Jefferson, John Adams, Cato the Elder, Thomas Hobbes, Eric, Christoph Polhem, and Michelangelo, individuals who reached the age of 85 or more before the twentieth century.

For poorer individuals like farmers or workers, this also happened. Genealogists will discover predecessors living a couple of hundred years ago, until the 70s, 80s, and even 90s.

The average men's life expectancy, for instance, has been discovered in the UK in the 1871 census (the first census, but private information from others date from 1841 and numerical data from 1801), found the average male life expectancy as being 44, but when child mortality is reduced, men in adulthood lived in an average of 75 years.

At present, in the U.K., men are 77 years old and women 81 years old, while the U.S. averages 74 years for men and 80 years for women.

Studies have shown that black American males live the shortest life of any group in the United States, averaging only 69 years. This represents a general decrease in the health of black American males and a higher incidence of heart, obesity, diabetes and cancer.

Women usually survive men. Smaller organisms (and therefore less heart pressure) include a better immune system (since testosterone works as an immunosuppressant) and fewer physically dangerous tasks.

Long Life Boy Standing Rear View
Fit Guy - Long Life

There is a discussion as to whether longevity is a worthwhile medical objective. Bioethicist Ezekiel Emanuel, also one of Obama Care's architects, stated that the search for survival, through compression of the explanations of morbidity, is an "imagination," and longevity after 75 years is not an end of itself.

Neurosurgeon Miguel Faria challenges this, stating that life in good ancient age could be worthwhile, that morbidity compression is a genuine phenomenon and that longevity in connection with life quality must be pursued. 
Faria addressed the possibility to defer senescence and happiness and wisdom in the ancient era in combination with leading healthful lifestyles.

Longevity is limited

Longevity is restricted for all biological organisms and distinct animal and plant species have various potential for longevity. 
The theory that an organism's longevity potential is linked to its structural complexity indicates misrepair-accumulation aging

The reduced structural complexity of the organism is due to its restricted longevity. 
If the structural complexity of a species of organisms is too high, most people will die before breeding and the species cannot survive. 
This theory indicates that restricted structural and longevity is crucial for a species ' survival.

Myths of long life

Longevity myths are traditions about long-lived people (usually super centuries), either as individuals or groups of people, and practices that were thought to confer longevity, but for which science proof does not support the ages claimed or the reasons for the allegations. In Lucian Boia's 2004 book Forever Young: 
A Cultural History of Longevity from Antiquity to the Present and other sources, a comparison and contrast of "longevity in ancient times" (such as the Sumerian King List, Genesis genealogies, and the Persian Shahnameh) with "longevity in historical times" (common-era cases through news reports from the 20th century) is elaborated in detail.

After Juan Ponce de León's death, in Historia General y Natural de las Indias (1535), Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés wrote that Ponce de León was looking for Bimini's waters to heal his aging. 

Alchemy, such as that ascribed to Nicolas Flamel, also includes traditions that were thought to confer higher human longevity. 
The Okinawa diet in the modern era has some reputation for being associated with extremely elevated ages.

Longevity claims can be sub-categorized into four groups:

1. "In late life, very elderly individuals often tend to increase their age by about 17 years per decade.
2. It is thought that several famous super-centenarians (over 110 years) were two lives (dad and son, relationships with the same names or consecutive title bearers).
3. Many cases have been commercially supported, while those produced for political ends are the fourth category of the latest allegations.
4.  The British censuses of 1901 and 1911 corroborated the estimate of 17 years per decade.
 Time magazine considered that the Soviet Union had elevated longevity to a state-sponsored Methuselah cult.
Robert Ripley regularly reported supercentenarian claims in Ripley's Believe It or Not! typically citing his reputation as a fact-checker to claim reliability.

Longevity with Chromosomes Telomeres simulation diagram Picture representation


The U.S. Census Bureau's opinion of the future of longevity is that life expectancy in the U.S. will be in the mid-80s by 2050 (up from 77.85 in 2006) and eventually top-up in the low 90s, barring significant science developments that can alter the rate of human aging itself, as opposed to mere treatment of the consequences of aging as it is today. 
The Census Bureau also anticipated that in 2100 there would be 5.3 million individuals in the United States aged over 100. 
The United Nations has also produced far-reaching predictions into the future, up to 2300, at which point it projects that life expectancies in most developed countries will range from 100 to 106 years and continue to rise, though increasingly slowly than before.

These estimates also indicate that life expectancies in developing nations will still be lower, in some instances by as much as 20 years, than in wealthy countries in 2300. 
In particular, because technology exchanges between wealthy and developing nations and the industrialization and growth of poor nations can bring their life expectancy in full convergence with that of wealthy nations much before that stage, the UN itself stated that there may not be any gaps in living expectancy until now.

Similarly to how the life expectancy between wealthy and poor nations is convergent in the last 60 years since many individuals in poor nations have access to better medicine, technology and living circumstances. 
The UN has advised that the forecasts are unsure and warns that any pathological changes or improvements could render such predictions null and void.

Recent rates of lifestyle diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular illness, may ultimately slow or reversed this trend in the developing world towards raising life expectancy but have still not. 
The average age of the American population is rising and these illnesses appear in the elderly.

Couzin-Frankel investigated how much death from different causes should fall to increase life expectancy and found that the majority of previous rises in life expectancy were due to enhanced young people's survival rates.

She says that life expectancy at birth seems unlikely ever to be more than 85 years. Michio Kaku claims that the rate of life expectancy increases forever in genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and future breakthroughs.

The life expectancy of certain primates has already been raised by genetic engineering, and human cells in laboratories have continuous split up and live without becoming cancerous.

Trusted information from 1840 to 2002 show that life expectancy for males and females has increased linearly, although for males slower.

The rise was almost 3 months a year for females and males nearly 2.7 months annually. In the light of the continuous rise, the suggestion that life expectancy should be handled with caution without any indication of restriction.

Scientists Oeppen and Vaupel observe that "life expectancy approaches a limit has constantly been demonstrated to be mistaken." Life expectancy for females is believed to have increased more significantly due to significant improvements in birth-related medicine.

Non-human biological longevity

Currently living:
A 5,068-year-old Pinus longaeva species member: the oldest knew that tree was still living.

Methuselah: the second oldest bristlecone pine presently living organism in California, the White Mountains of California, is 4800 years old.

Treatment and advancement in Human Biology and Long Living Techniques


Permanent bacteria from Bacillus have been restored to stasis after they have been discovered in sodium crystals in a cavern in New Mexico, possibly 250 million years old.
The longest-lived single organism known is a pine bristlecone, known as the "Prometheus," which was killed in 1964 by a climate-dynamics scientist in the Great Basin National Park at Nevada.

The quahog clam (Arctica islandica) is exceptionally long-lived, the shortest of any animal with a maximum recorded era of 507 years. Other species clams have been reported as living up to 374 years.

Based on a model of its development rates, Lamellibrachialuymesi, a deep-sea cold-seep tubeworm, is estimated to achieve ages over 250 years.

A bowhead whale killed in a hunt was found to be approximately 211 years old (possibly up to 245 years old), the longest-lived mammal known.

Author's Bio

Doctor Shawna Reason, Virologist
Dr. Shawna Reason
Name: Shawna Reason

Education: MBBS, MD

Occupation: Medical Doctor / Virologist 

Specialization: Medical Science, Micro Biology / Virology, Natural Treatment

Experience: 15 Years as a Medical Practitioner

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