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Herpes Simplex Virus HSV 1 HSV 2 Transmission Prevention and Treatment


Herpes Simplex Virus HSV 1 HSV 2 Transmission Prevention and Treatment

Herpes virus is a group of enveloped DNA viruses with similar biological characteristics and is classified as Herpesviridae. A total of more than 100 types have been found, which can be divided into three major categories (subfamily) of Alpha, Beta and Gamma. The herpes simplex viruses discussed today include types 1 and 2, plus varicella-zoster virus. All three viruses belong to the herpes virus Alpha subfamily.


    Mainly 2 Types of Herpes

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), or herpes virus, is divided into two types: herpes simplex virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus type 2.

    Herpes simplex virus infection, often called herpes, is usually caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2.

     Type 1 herpes simplex virus is transmitted mainly through mouth-to-mouth contact, causing infections in or around the mouth (oral herpes, including symptoms called "cold herpes"). Herpes simplex virus type 2 is transmitted almost exclusively through sex, causing infections in the genitals or anus (genital herpes).
    However, herpes simplex virus type 1 can also spread to the genital area through mouth-to-genital contact, causing genital herpes. Types I and II herpes simplex virus infections last a lifetime.


    Oral herpes infections and genital herpes infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can cause mild symptoms or painful blisters or ulcers at the infected site.


    It is estimated that 3.7 billion people (67%) under the age of 50 worldwide suffer from type 1 herpes simplex virus infection.

     It is estimated that 417 million people (11%) between the ages of 15 and 49 are infected with type II herpes simplex virus.

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)

    HSV-1 infection is a highly contagious infection that is widespread throughout the world. Most HSV-1 infections are childhood infections, and infections last a lifetime. Most HSV-1 infections are oral herpes (infection in or around the mouth, sometimes referred to as herpes labialis or facial herpes), but some HSV-1 infections are genital herpes (infection of the genital or anal area). In 2012, there was an estimate of approximately 140 million people aged 15-49 years who contracted genital HSV-1 infection in the world.

    However, the prevalence varies greatly among different regions. However, most genital HSV-1 infections occur in the Americas, Europe, and the Western Pacific, where HSV-1 continues to be endemic during adulthood. But in other regions, such as Africa, most HSV-1 infections are childhood infections before the age of first sexual intercourse.

    HSV 1 is divided into four parts:

    1. Geographical distribution
    2. Signs and symptoms
    3. Modes of transmission
    4. Prevention and treatment


    Geographical Distribution of Herpes

    It is  widely distributed throughout the world

     

    Signs and Symptoms of HSV

    Oral herpes infections are mostly asymptomatic, so the vast majority of patients with type 1 HSV infection are unaware that they are infected.
    Symptoms of oral herpes include painful blisters in or around the mouth or open sores called ulcers. Sores on the lips are often called "cold sores". 

    Prior to the appearance of sores, infected persons often have stinging, itching, or burning sensations around the mouth. After the initial infection, blisters or ulcers can occur regularly and repeatedly. 

    The frequency of relapses varies from person to person, some may relapse once a month, and some once a year.

    The herpes virus causes herpes because the infection of the virus in most cells manifests as a cytolytic infection, which makes the cells round, swell, and eventually lyse (can be understood as a balloon blow). The reason is that the virus can be transmitted to the sensory ganglia through sensory axonal nerves after the initial infection, and the virus can lurk in nerve cells in a non-replicating form and last for life. 

    HSV-1 lurks in the trigeminal ganglia and superior cervical ganglia, and HSV-2 lurks in the sacral ganglia.

    Regular and repeated triggers can be caused by non-specific stimulation of the body, such as fever, cold, sun exposure, menstrual periods, emotional stress or other bacterial viral infections, or transient cellular immunity is suppressed.

    At this time the latent virus is activated, descends along the axon of sensory nerve fibers to the periphery and replicates in the epithelial cells innervated by the relevant nerves. This causes the recurrent local herpes we see.

    However, the body has the immune memory of the related virus, and the disease course is relatively short when recurrence, and the infection is generally limited, and usually heals in 8-10 days. But this thing hurts.

    The virus is most contagious during the relapse period. Textbooks generally say that HSV-1 infection is limited to the waist, and HSV-2 infections are basically below the waist. However, it will be mentioned below that HSV-1 can also infection below the waist.

    Herpes Virus Type 1, Type 2
    Clusters of small blisters and needle size can occur anywhere on the skin and mucous membranes. The blister wall is thin and transparent, and will soon rupture, forming a superficial ulcer. Although the blister is relatively small, it quickly gathers into clusters.

    What happens after Rupture?

    After rupture, it can cause a large area of ​​erosion and can cause secondary infection. The surface is covered with a yellow pseudomembrane. 
    At this time, the healing begins the erosion surface gradually reduces and healed, but the entire course of the disease took 7 to 10 days.

    Without proper treatment, recovery is slower. During the illness, antiviral antibodies will appear in the blood, the highest from 14 to 21 days after the onset, and the antibody levels will drop to lower levels in the future. Although they can maintain life, they cannot prevent recurrence.

    Genital herpes caused by HSV-1 can be asymptomatic or can have mild symptoms without being noticed. When symptoms occur, genital herpes is characterized by one or more genital / anal blisters or ulcers. The initial genital herpes phase may be severe and symptoms may recur afterwards, but genital herpes caused by HSV-1 does not often recur.

    Other Symptoms and Signs Herpes Virus Type 1 (HPV 1)

    In immunocompromised individuals, such as those with advanced HIV infection, HSV-1 can have more severe symptoms and relapse more frequently. In rare cases, HSV-1 infection can also cause more serious complications, such as encephalitis or keratitis (eye infections).

    Neonatal herpes: Neonatal herpes is a rare but sometimes fatal disease that can cause infection when a baby comes in contact with herpes simplex virus in the genital tract during childbirth. The risk of neonatal herpes is greatest when the mother first becomes infected with HSV late in pregnancy. Herpes simplex virus is detected in TORCH in P.S. prenatal testing for pregnant women.


    Transmission Method of HSV 1 or Herpes Type 1

    HSV-1 is transmitted mainly through mouth-to-mouth contact, and can be caused by contact with sores, saliva, and epidermis in or around the mouth. However, HSV-1 can also spread to the genital area through mouth-to-genital contact and cause genital herpes.

    Type 1 herpes simplex virus can also be transmitted on the normal mouth or skin surface when there are no symptoms. However, when active sores are present, the risk of transmission is greatest. So many times the infection is not known to everyone.
    In other words, herpes infections are most contagious when symptoms occur, but they can still be transmitted to others without symptoms.

    Individuals who already have an HSV-1 oral herpes infection are less likely to subsequently infect the genital area.

    In rare cases, HSV-1 infection can be transmitted from a mother with a genital HSV-1 infection to a baby during childbirth.

    Prevention and Treatment of Herpes Virus

    Treatment: Acyclovir, famciclovir, valacyclovir and other antiviral drugs, orally and smear the affected area. These drugs can help relieve the severity and frequency of symptoms, but they do not cure the infection.

    Prevention: As mentioned earlier, the virus is most contagious during symptomatic attacks, but it can also spread when there are no symptoms or the symptoms are not obvious.

    Therefore, people with oral herpes infection who have active symptoms should avoid oral contact with others and avoid sharing items with saliva contact. Prohibit oral sex and prevent herpes from being transmitted to the sexual partners' genitals. Individuals with symptoms of genital herpes should ban XXOO activity during the onset of symptoms. 

    Consistent and proper use of condoms can help prevent the spread of genital herpes. However, condoms only reduce the risk of infection, because genital herpes can also occur in areas not covered by the condom. 

    Pregnant women with symptoms of genital herpes should inform their health care provider. Preventing new genital herpes infections is especially important for women in late pregnancy, because that's when the risk of neonatal herpes is highest.
    No vaccine is currently available, but some research is being developed.


    People with HSV-1 infection are not at risk of re-infection because they have always existed, but it is still possible to continue to be infected with type 2 HSV


    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)

    It is still divided into four parts:
    1. Geographical distribution
    2. Signs and symptoms
    3. Modes of transmission
    4. Prevention and Treatment

    Geographical distribution: Still widely distributed throughout the world
    HSV-2 is also globally distributed, and in 2012 it was estimated that 417 million people worldwide were infected. It is estimated that the prevalence of HSV-2 infection is highest in Africa (31.5%), followed by the Americas (14.4%). 
    Most newly acquired patients are adolescents, but viral infections have also increased with age. More women than men are infected with HSV-2; in 2012, an estimated 267 million women and 150 million men lived with the disease.
    This is because herpes simplex virus is more easily transmitted from men to women through sexual transmission than from women to men.

    Signs and Symptoms of Herpes Type 2

    Genital herpes infections are usually asymptomatic or have mild symptoms that are difficult to detect. Most infected people are unaware of their infection.
    Generally, about 10-20% of patients with HSV-2 infection will report a previous diagnosis of genital herpes.


     When symptoms occur, genital herpes is characterized by the appearance of one or more genital / anal blisters or open sores called ulcers. In addition to genital ulcers, symptoms of new genital herpes infections often include fever, soreness, and enlarged lymph nodes.

    After the first episode of HSV-2 infection, symptoms often recur, but they are often not as severe as the first episode. The frequency of attacks tends to decrease over time. Before genital ulcers develop, people with HSV-2 infections experience mild tingling or lightning-like pain in the legs, crotches and hips.

    Herpes Virus Type 2. HPV 2

    Other symptoms and signs

    Similar to genital HSV-1, there is also an interaction between HSV-2 and HIV. HSV-2 infection can increase the risk of acquiring new HIV infections by about three times. In addition, people who have both HIV and HSV-2 infection are more likely to pass HIV to others. HSV-2 is the most common form of infection among HIV carriers, accounting for 60-90% of people living with HIV. 

    When people with HIV (and other immunocompromised people) develop HSV-2, they often have more severe disease manifestations and a higher frequency of relapses.
    In the later stages of HIV infection, HSV-2 can cause more severe but rare complications such as meningoencephalitis, esophagitis, hepatitis, pneumonia, retinal necrosis, or disseminated infection.

    Neonatal herpes: Neonatal herpes is a rare but potentially fatal disease. Similar to genital HSV-1, infants can become infected when they contact HSV-2 in the genital tract during childbirth.
    The risk of neonatal herpes is greatest when the mother is first infected with HSV-2 in late pregnancy.

    Transmission Method of Herpes Type 2

    HSV-2 is transmitted mainly during sexual activity through contact with the genital surface, skin, sores, or body fluids of a person infected with the virus. 
    HSV-2 can also spread through skin that appears to be normal to the genitals and anus, and is often transmitted without symptoms. In rare cases, HSV-2 can be passed from mother to baby during childbirth.

    Prevention and Treatment of Herpes Type 2 (HSV 2)

    Treatment: Like HSV-1, antiviral drugs such as acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir can help relieve the severity and frequency of symptoms, but they cannot cure the infection.

    Prevention: Patients with HSV-2 genital infections should not have sex during genital herpes symptoms. 
    The herpes simplex virus type 2 is most contagious at the onset of sores, but it can also spread when there are no symptoms or the symptoms are not obvious. 

    Conclusion

    The role of the condom is the same as described above. Male circumcision allows men to form life-long partial protection against HSV-2, HIV and human papilloma virus (HPV). There is no vaccine.


    Author's Bio

    Doctor Shawna Reason, Virologist
    Dr. Shawna Reason
    Name: Shawna Reason

    Education: MBBS, MD

    Occupation: Medical Doctor / Virologist 

    Specialization: Medical Science, Micro Biology / Virology, Natural Treatment

    Experience: 15 Years as a Medical Practitioner

    About Me | Linkedin | Quora Profile | Medium Profile | Twitter


    See Also:
    • Herpes Virus Biological Traits
    • Coronavirus Spread
    • Telemedicine
    • High Blood Pressure
    • Blood Donation
    • Dental Emergency
    • Fatty Liver
    • Medical Admissions

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