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Hepatitis B Virus Infection Causes Prevention

Causes and Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

Hepatitis B virus-related liver damage is the principal cause of viral hepatitis type B, an infectious disease. Appetite loss, nausea, upper stomach pain, pain near the liver, and weariness are some of the clinical signs. The viral infection can cause liver damage, jaundice, fever, and enlarged livers in some patients. A small number of patients may develop liver cancer, while others may become chronic and even develop cirrhosis.


Name of the illness: type B viral hepatitis

Department visited: Infectious Diseases

Hepatitis B virus is a common cause.

Common signs and symptoms include exhaustion, loss of appetite, nausea, greasiness, and pain in the upper right abdomen.

How is the condition known as IBS treated?

Irritable bowel syndrome is generally treated by forming healthy habits and avoiding items that cause gas.

Disease Overview

    Can hepatitis B be fully recovered from? What is the underlying science?

    People with clinical signs of chronic hepatitis B who have tested positive for the hepatitis B virus, whose disease has been present for longer than six months, or whose onset date is unclear, are said to have chronic hepatitis B (also known as hepatitis B).

    Its clinical symptoms include tiredness, appetite loss, nausea, bloating, and pain around the liver.

    Because hepatitis B causes more damage, it may not be curable and needs to be aggressively avoided.

    General Information

    What causes a person to contract hepatitis B?

    Hepatitis B virus, often known as HBV, is the root cause of the disease and is a DNA virus. DNA that is double-stranded, circular, and partially closed makes up the genome. The outer membrane, also known as the virus's envelope, is its topmost layer. The core is the inner layer.

    The core antigen (HBcAg) is a nucleoprotein, which cannot be found in serum.

    Under the electron microscope, HBsAg-positive serum revealed three different types of particles, including spherical and filamentous particles with a diameter of 22 nm and a smaller number of 42.


    Complete HBV particles are spherical particles, also called Dane's particles.


    HBV has a high level of resistance to environmental factors and can withstand disinfectants at typical concentrations. It can withstand 60 ° C of heat for four hours.

    Boiling for 10 minutes, disinfecting with high-pressure steam, and submerging it in 2% peroxyacetic acid for 2 minutes can all inactivate it.

    Clinical Symptoms

    1. What symptoms are present in acute hepatitis?

    Acute jaundice hepatitis and acute non-jaundice hepatitis are the two types.

    The incubation period for hepatitis B is lengthy, lasting anywhere from 45 to 160 days on average. The sickness lasts for two to four months overall.

    (1) Chills, fever, exhaustion, loss of appetite, nausea, oiliness, abdominal discomfort, pain near the liver, and a gradually darker urine colour are symptoms of jaundice in its early stages.

    It often lasts between five and seven days.

     (2) Regression of the jaundice fever, yellowing of the sclera and skin, improvement in consciousness as jaundice appeared, discomfort and throbbing pain in the liver, and minor splenomegaly in some patients.

    It lasts for two to six weeks.

    (3) Recovering phase: Liver and spleen function gradually returns to normal, symptoms fade or even disappear, and jaundice gradually disappears. 

    2. What symptoms are present in chronic hepatitis?

    Chronic hepatitis can be diagnosed in people who have had hepatitis B, HBsAg, or acute hepatitis for longer than 6 months but who still exhibit symptoms, signs, and abnormal liver function. Common signs and symptoms include signs of a dull complexion, yellow staining of the sclera, spider moles or liver palms, large liver, medium or full texture, tingling pain, generalised discomfort, appetite loss, discomfort or pain in the liver area, abdominal distension, and mild temperature.

    Deep jaundice, peritoneal effusion, lower extremities edoema, bleeding tendency, and hepatic encephalopathy are possible symptoms of a severe spleen. It can be categorised into three categories based on the severity of liver damage:


    (1) Mild Patients with mild disease may not show any overt signs or symptoms, and their biochemical indicators may only show one or two minor abnormalities.


    (2) Moderate signs and symptoms, i.e., those in the range of mild to severe abnormal alterations in liver performance.


    (3) When alternative reasons are ruled out and patients have no portal hypertension, liver disease, liver palms, spider moles, or hepatosplenomegaly may be present alongside severe or persistent liver inflammation symptoms such fatigue, poor appetite, bloating, loose stools, etc.

    One of the three tests that can be used to diagnose severe chronic hepatitis in a laboratory setting is the alanine aminotransferase repeatedly or continuously increased, albumin decreased or abnormal A/G ratio, gamma globulin significantly increased, and albumin 32 g/L, bilirubin > 85.5 mol/L, and thrombin 60% to 40% of the original activity.

    3. What symptoms does severe hepatitis present with?

    (1) Deep jaundice, a tiny liver, fast start, and rapid progression characterise acute severe hepatitis.

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms start to manifest within 10 days of the outset, bleeding tendency is evident, and liver odour, peritoneal effusion, hepatorenal syndrome, and prothrombin activity are all below 40%.

    Low cholesterol and obviously impaired liver function are the only contributing factors.


    (2) Hepatic encephalopathy is more common in the later stages of severe liver damage. Ten days after the onset of subacute severe hepatitis, there is still extreme fatigue, poor appetite, severe jaundice (bilirubin > 171 mol/L), abdominal distension, and formation of peritoneal effusion, as well as obvious bleeding phenomena. Total bilirubin, which is caused by bile enzyme separation, an inverted A/G ratio, and gamma globulin, is dramatically elevated while serum ALT is neither decreased nor raised. Prothrombin activity was only 40% and prothrombin time increased.


    (3) Imaging, laparoscopy, or liver puncture are used to support the chronic hepatitis manifestations in chronic severe hepatitis, which differs from subacute severe hepatitis in terms of clinical manifestations and laboratory changes. Chronic severe hepatitis also has cirrhosis from chronic hepatitis or a history of carrying hepatitis B surface antigen.

    4. What follows hepatitis is cirrhosis?

    Chronic hepatitis B leads to the development of hepatitis B cirrhosis. Ultrasound and CT scans are required for the pathological diagnosis of early liver cirrhosis (the liver tissue has diffuse fibrosis and pseudolobular development).

    The most reference-worthy procedure is laparoscopy. Patients with chronic hypertension who exhibit symptoms of portal hypertension, such as varicose veins on the abdominal wall and in the oesophagus, peritoneal effusion, liver shrinkage, splenomegaly, and enlarging portal vein and splenic vein diameter, and who rule out other potential causes of portal hypertension are said to have cirrhosis.

    There are two types of cirrhosis: active and stagnant, depending on the level of hepatitis activity.

    5. What are carriers of the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)?

    Healthy carriers, people with persistent HBV infection, and even people with liver cirrhosis are all HBsAg carriers.

    Only 10% to 29% of HBsAg carriers had normal liver tissues, while the majority exhibited varied degrees of liver tissue damage, according to the study.

    In China, the following criteria are used to define HBsAg carriers: HBsAg positivity, but no hepatitis symptoms or signs, normal liver function tests, and no changes within six months.

    Causes of Hepatitis B viral infection

    Examining the liver

    1. What is a test for liver function?

     (1) Enzymatic detection of serum: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is present in liver cells at 104 times higher levels than in serum.

    The blood concentration can be increased with just 1% liver cell necrosis, and the likelihood of having acute hepatitis is between 80 and 100 percent.

    Since the myocardium contains the largest concentration of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cardiac disease should be ruled out before looking at the impact on liver function.

    The mitochondria of liver cells contain 80% of the AST. In general, ALT is the key factor in liver injury.

    Significantly elevated serum AST levels frequently signify highly necrotic liver cells.

    However, in severe hepatitis, bilirubin may continuously increase but transaminase may decrease, i.e., bile enzyme separation, indicating that liver cell necrosis is serious. The release of AST into the blood from mitochondria and the degree of increase in serum transaminase are roughly parallel to the severity of the disease.

    Most frequently, serum ALT and AST levels are used to gauge the severity of liver cell destruction.

    (2) The detection of serum protein: Serum protein is frequently utilised in clinical settings as a biochemical marker of liver protein metabolism, which reflects the liver's synthetic activity.

    Serum albumin levels frequently fall as a result of chronic hepatitis cirrhosis, whereas globulin levels and specifically -globulin levels rise.

    (3) Serum bilirubin detection: The liver performs the bilirubin metabolic processes of absorption, transport, binding, and excretion.

    Damage to liver function causes a rise in bilirubin levels.

    The degree of liver damage is directly correlated with bilirubin levels, with the exception of cholestatic hepatitis inside and outside the liver.

    (4) Prothrombin time (PT): The duration of PT in liver disease is strongly connected with the extent of liver damage, which is of considerable utility in determining disease progression and prognosis. It can sensitively reflect the liver's synthesis of coagulation factors II, IX, IX, and X.

    Hepatitis B Virus Infection Disease of Liver, Polymerase

    2. What does "detection of hepatitis B viral indicators" mean?

    i. HBsAg and anti-HBs: HBsAg positivity shows that HBV is currently in the infection stage, whereas positive anti-HBs results in the development of HBV immunity.

    Chronic HBsAg carriers are diagnosed when they have normal liver function, no clinical symptoms, and have been HBsAg positive for more than six months.

    ii. HBeAg positivity is a sign of active HBV replication and infectivity, as well as anti-HBe positivity.

    The test serum's transition from an HBeAg-positive to an anti-HBe-positive state shows that the disease has subsided and its contagiousness has diminished.

    iii. HBcAg and anti-HBc: HBcAg positivity indicates a complete direct response of HBV particles and active replication of HBV; nevertheless, it is rarely employed in clinics due to the challenging detection procedure.

    Anti-HBcIgM positivity suggests that the infection is in the early stages and that virus replication is occurring in the body. Anti-HBc is a marker of HBV infection. The majority of anti-HBc total antibodies are anti-HBcIgG.

    This antibody is positive regardless of whether the virus has been eradicated as long as they have had HBV infection.

    The signs are difficult to turn negatively, and HBsAg, HBeAg, and anti-HBc positives in chronic mild hepatitis B and HBsAg carriers are extremely contagious.

    Molecular biological markers: The presence of HBV DNA in serum, as determined by molecular hybridization or PCR, indicates that the virus is actively replicating and spreading.

    Liver Biopsy for Hepatitis B

    3. Describe a liver biopsy

    Although it is the primary indicator for the identification of various viral hepatitis types and the precise proof for the diagnosis of early liver cirrhosis, the traumatic examination is not always available.

    4. What are computer tomography (CT) and ultrasound?

    The usage of ultrasound is common. It is possible to distinguish between liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, and jaundice using the diagnostic signs of chronic hepatitis and hepatitis cirrhosis that have been found.

    Additionally, a CT scan is quite helpful for making the aforementioned diagnosis, locating lesions that take up space in the liver, and tracking the progression of chronic hepatitis B.

    How is Hepatitis B identified?

    The aforementioned symptoms, indicators, laboratory results, histology, and imaging tests are used to make the diagnosis of hepatitis B.

    The serum HBV indicators and HBV DNA test findings must be used to make the diagnosis.

    According to clinical traits and laboratory results, hepatitis B is classified into several clinical kinds, including acute, chronic, cirrhosis, and primary liver cell cancer linked to hepatitis B virus.

    Hepatitis Virus Genome

    Acute hepatitis B

    Recently, there have been symptoms related to the digestive system and weakness that cannot be attributed to other conditions, such as jaundice or yellow urine, eyes, or skin.

    1. 1. Abnormal liver biochemical testing may reveal high serum bilirubin as well as raised serum ALT and AST.

      2. HBsAg is present.

      3. There is convincing proof that within six months, serum HBsAg was negative.

      4. More than 1: 1000 positive test for anti-HBc IgM.

      5. The alterations in acute viral hepatitis are consistent with the liver histology.

      6. Negative serum HBsAg and positive anti-HBs conversion during the recovery phase.

    Persistent Hepatitis B

    1. The HBsAg status of an acute HBV infection remains positive or is positive for more than six months.

    2. Anti-HBc IgM is negative and HBsAg positivity's duration is uncertain.

    3. Patients' symptoms and liver illness, including liver palm, spider mole, liver and spleen, etc.

    4. A persistent or repeated rise in serum ALT, a fall in plasma albumin and/or globulin levels, and a rise in bilirubin.

    5. The histology of the liver is compatible with that of chronic viral hepatitis.

    6. HBV DNA can be found or serum HBeAg is positive, ruling out other factors that could induce increased serum ALT.

    3. Hepatitis B Cirrhosis

    1. Positive serum HBsAg or a demonstrable history of chronic hepatitis B

    2. A decrease in serum albumin, a rise in serum ALT or AST, an increase in serum bilirubin, or a clear oesophagus, fundus varices, hepatic encephalopathy, or ascites, all of which are accompanied by hypersplenism (platelet and/or leukopenia).

    3. Imaging results from abdominal B-mode ultrasonography, CT, or MRI exhibit classic liver cirrhosis characteristics.

    4. Formation of pseudolobules and diffuse fibrosis in liver histology.

    Treatment of Hepatitis B


    1. How is Hepatitis B generally treated?

    Treatment Alcohol consumption is strictly forbidden while acute and chronic hepatitis are active, necessitating hospitalisation, bed rest, and acceptable nutrition to provide a supply of calories, protein, and vitamins.

    During the healing process, the patient should gradually raise their activity levels.

    Rest is when chronic hepatitis is most effective. To maintain hydration and electrolyte stability in patients with severe hepatitis, it is recommended that they stay completely bedridden, try to cut back on their protein intake, supplement with calories and vitamins, and get human albumin or fresh plasma transfusions.

    2. How is Hepatitis B treated with Antivirals?

    Antiviral therapy is typically necessary for chronic viral hepatitis but not for acute hepatitis.

    i. Interferon: Recombinant DNA interleukin (IFN-) can prevent HBV from replicating. For 6 consecutive months after the intramuscular injection, only 30% to 50% of patients experienced a longer-lasting impact. Interferon, which can be used with ribavirin, is the primary treatment for hepatitis C.

    ii. Lamivudine is a synthetic dideoxycytosine ribolycoside medication that has an anti-HBV action. After 12 weeks of treatment, oral lamivudine can considerably lower serum HBV-DNA levels and increase the HBV-DNA negative rate to above 90%. 

    Although long-term treatment can lower ALT and improve liver inflammation, only 16% to 18% of patients become HBeAg negative. HBV mutations can develop after more than six months of treatment, but you can still take this medication. Side effects may last for one to four years.

    Famciclovir is a guanosine medication with a long half-life and high intracellular concentration that has the ability to prevent HBV-DNA replication. The effectiveness of this medication can be increased by combining it with lamivudine interferon despite its mild adverse effects.

    Acyclovir, adefovir, entecavir, sodium phosphonate, and other antiviral medications have a particular inhibitory effect on HBV.

    3. What is Immunomodulator?

    Common examples include:

    i. Thymosin 1 (Zidaxian) has a two-way immunomodulatory impact that can help patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies regain their immunological function.

    ii. Thymosin T lymphocyte differentiation and maturation are induced by the immunological response of the body's cells, which also enhances T cells' reactivity to antigens and controls the number of T cell subgroups.

    What does Hepatitis B Viral Infection Disease Prevention entail?

    Since the hepatitis B virus is mostly spread by blood, vertical transmission from mother to child and iatrogenic infection are the most significant modes of transmission. 

    The precautions include:

    1. Control the infection's source

    Blood donations and diet-related activities should be avoided for people with chronic hepatitis and asymptomatic HBV carriers.

    Treatment and management recommendations for patients with HBV-positive liver disease should be based on their symptoms, physical manifestations, and outcomes of laboratory tests.

    2. Block the communication pathway

    Hepatitis B treatment focuses on preventing transmission through bodily fluids like blood, enhancing blood donor screening, and tightly regulating blood transfusion and blood product usage.

    High-potency hepatitis B immunoglobulin can be applied if a wound or area is discovered to be contaminated with the hepatitis B virus or is believed to be so.

    To prevent mother-to-child transmission, the devices used for the interventional evaluation and treatment of syringes should be carefully sterilised.

    3. Look out for those who are weak

    Artificial immunity, especially active immunity, is a fundamental measure to prevent hepatitis. 
    Hepatitis B vaccine has been promoted in China to achieve good results.
     For babies born to HBsAg and HBeAg positive pregnant women, high-potency hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is injected within 24 hours of birth. 
    He was also vaccinated once with hepatitis B vaccine and then injected with HBIG and vaccine one month after birth.
    Early detection, early diagnosis, early isolation, early reporting, early treatment, and early treatment of viral hepatitis B are needed to prevent the epidemic.

    Author's Bio

    Doctor Shawna Reason, Virologist
    Dr. Shawna Reason
    Name: Shawna Reason

    Education: MBBS, MD

    Occupation: Medical Doctor / Virologist 

    Specialization: Medical Science, Micro Biology / Virology, Natural Treatment

    Experience: 15 Years as a Medical Practitioner

    About Me | Linkedin | Quora Profile | Medium Profile | Twitter

    See Also:
    • Hepatitis Diagnosis Treatment
    • Fatty Liver 
    • Herpes Virus
    • Coronavirus Spread
    • Telemedicine
    • High Blood Pressure
    • Blood Donation
    • Dental Emergency
    • Medical Admissions


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