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Hantavirus Symptoms Transmission Treatment. Hanta Virus Full Study


Symptoms Transmission and Treatment of Hantavirus, Complete Hanta Virus Anbalysis

Meaning of Hantavirus: Hantavirus belongs to the Bunyaviridae family. It is an enveloped segmented negative-strand RNA virus. The genome includes three fragments: L, M and S, which encode the L polymerase protein, G1 and G2 glycoproteins.

Definition of HantavirusAn enveloped segmented negative-strand RNA virus the genome of which includes 3 fragments L, M & S encoding the L polymerase protein and G1 G2 glycoiproteins.
  

Overview of Hantavirus

Hantavirus belongs to the Bunyaviridae family. It is an enveloped segmented negative-strand RNA virus. The genome includes three fragments L, M and S, which encode the L polymerase protein, G1 and G2 glycoproteins protein. 

     

    How many virus does Hantavirus include?

    Hantavirus includes the following:
    • Hantaan virus (HTNV) that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)
    •  Seoul virus (SEOV), Puumala virus (PUUV) and Dobravirus 
    (Dobrava virus (DOBV))
    • A nameless virus (Sin Nombre virus (SNV) that causes Hantavirus lung syndrome (HPS)
    • New York virus (NYV)
    • Black Creek Canal virus (BCCNV)
    • Bayou virus (BAYV)
    • Andes virus (ANV)
    • A group of viruses whose relationship with human diseases is unclear, such as Prospect Hill virus (PHV)
    • Thailand virus (Thailand virus) (THAIV)
    • Tula virus (TULV)
    • Thottapalayam virus (TPMV)
    • Khabarovsk virus (KBRV)
    • El Moro Canyon virus (ELMCV)
    • Rio Segundo Virus (RIOSV)
    • Isla vista virus (ISLAV)
    • Muleshoe virus (MULEV)
    • Bloodland lake virus (BLLLV)
    • Rio Mamore virus (RMV)
    • Topografov virus (TOPV), etc. 

    In recent years, with the application of new technologies and the discovery of new viruses, the research on Hantavirus and related diseases has developed rapidly. 
    From March 5th to 7th, 1998, the 4th International HFRS and Hantavirus Conference was held in Atlanta, USA. Scholars and experts from various countries around the world exchanged the latest research methods and research results in this field.

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and Hantavirus renal syndrome hemorrhagic fever (HFRS)

    Classification and Distribution: Hantavirus can be of two types,  causing Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and the other causing Hantavirus renal syndrome hemorrhagic fever (HFRS).
     The former is prevalent in the United States, and cases have been detected in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia and Germany. 

    The main clinical manifestations are acute respiratory failure characterized by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and high mortality (52.4% -78.0%) after prodromal symptoms such as fever and headache around 4 days, and severe 3-7 days.

    About death, the survivors recover quickly, without sequelae. 
    The latter is common hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia, and molecular biological research on it once again proves that its pathogenesis is mainly the direct pathogenic role of the virus, the kidney is an early primary injury organ, and the virus is factor.
     

    What is the Diagnosis of Hantavirus?

    Research on the experimental diagnosis of Hantavirus mainly focuses on the application of recombinant antigens and the rapid, sensitive, and specificity of experimental diagnostic methods.

    F. Elgh et al. Used PUU virus recombinant nuclear protein as an antigen and linked it to latex for latex microparticle agglutination test for rapid serological diagnosis of hantavirus disease.

    Compared with ELISA using PUU virus recombinant nuclear protein as antigen, It is 90% and the sensitivity is 94%.
    Jiro Arikawa et al.
     Used baculovirus-expressed HTN, SEO and PUU nucleoproteins for ELISA, using at least two recombinant antigens (HTN and PUU or SEO and PUU), which can be used for serological monitoring of Hantavirus infection. 

    Baculovirus expresses the N-terminally deleted HTN or SEO virus nuclear protein as an antigen of immunofluorescence assay (IFA), which can distinguish HTN from SEO virus infection. 

    Recombinant nucleoproteins and N-terminal deleted nucleoproteins are used in ELISA and IFA to provide a rapid, sensitive and safe diagnostic method for hantavirus infection.
     H. Kallio-Kokko et al. used baculovirus-expressed PUU virus nuclear protein for IgG and IgM detection, E. coli-expressed PUU virus nuclear protein for IgM detection, and the sensitivity reached 100%.

    Some of the expressed nuclear proteins were used for IgG test with low sensitivity (70%). 
    They also reported that in acute cases of PUU virus infection, two-thirds of cases can use RT-PCR to detect viral RNA from patients' blood or urine.

    T. Tomiyama et al. Coated high-density positive particles with purified Hantavirus antigen, and used high-density particle agglutination test (HDPA) for rapid serological diagnosis of viral infections.
    Specificity, there is also a low level of cross-reactivity to PUU and SN virus infection. 

    Compared with IFA, HDPA has similar sensitivity, but it is easier and faster than IFA. W. Irwin et al. reported the application of immunoblot test in the field investigation to the detection of murine virus antibodies.

    Qiu Jianming et al. Used 5′-end biotin-labeled Hantan virus-specific oligonucleotide probes, combined magnetic separation technology and improved guanidine isothiocyanate-phenol one-step method to extract viral RNA and performed reverse transcription kits.
    PCR for the detection of serum from patients with clinical HFRS. 

    The positive detection rate of patient sera within 7 days was 100%, and the positive detection rate of patient sera between 8 and 14 days was 57.14%. 
    After 15 days, the patient sera could still detect 22.73% positive.

    The amplified product was confirmed to be specific amplification by dot blot detection, which provided a specific, sensitive, rapid and direct diagnostic method for early diagnosis of HFRS patients.

    What is Genetic Analysis of Hantavirus?

    Scholars from various countries have adopted the method of virus and host gene analysis to study the kinship between Hantavirus isolates or host animals, and the co-evolution of viruses and host animals.

    Hantavirus gene analysis

    J.W.Song et al. Isolated two strains of PUU-associated virus from Korea's Eothenomys regulus and named them Muju (MUJ) virus. 

    Two strains

    The sequence of the 241bp fragment of the G2 gene of the virus differed by 1.2%. The homology of the 241bp fragment of the G2 gene and the 208bp fragment of the S gene with the corresponding sequence of the PUU virus was 79.5% -83.4% and 80.3% -81.2%, respectively.

     L. Yashina et al. HTN virus isolated from Russian Far Eastern rats (Clethrionomys), Apodemus and HFRS patients. 
    The sequence homology of M fragments is 86% to 89%.

    The SEO virus isolated from patients with light HFRS has the same M fragment sequence. Source 97%. 
    M. Drebot has reported for the first time that Canadian prairie voles carry a PH-like virus.

     The sequences of M and S fragments of SN virus in different provinces of Canada are 25% different. 
    Compared with the SN virus strain in eastern Canada, the genetic sequence of the SN virus strain in western Canada is closer.

     Yong-Kyu Chu et al. Reported that the virus strain derived from Indonesian rattooth rat can be amplified by SEO-type specific primers.
     Sequence analysis of the 290bp M fragment shows a 7% difference from the SEO virus.
    Two strains were SEO viruses, and the other strain could be amplified by HTN-type specific primers.
    Sequence analysis of the 290bp M fragment showed a 1% difference from the THAI 749 strain.

     JWSong et al compared TUL virus from Poland with TUL virus from central Russia and Czechoslovakia, and the nucleoprotein and G2 glycoprotein amino acid sequence homology was greater than 96%. 
    Phylogenetic analysis showed that the TUL virus from Poland and the TUL virus from central Russia were the most Close, but there are also differences.

     Another study by C. Sibold et al.-Phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein-encoding genes showed that Western Slovak TUL virus is similar to Czech TUL virus, Eastern Slovak TUL virus is similar to central Russia TUL virus.

    The 3'-NCR system occurrence analysis shows that the TUL virus in East Slovakia is similar to the TUL virus in West Slovakia and the Czech Republic.

    The authors believe that there is a possibility that the Eastern Slovak TUL virus is recombined from the Central European and Russian TUL viruses.

    Host animal genetic analysis

    Cytochrome B gene analysis methods are mostly used. W.C. Black IV and others used microsatellite DNA analysis to determine the genetic relationship between deer and rat, and studied the way of transmission of hantavirus in the murine fossa.

    Co-evolution of viruses and host animals

    Four Hantaviruses (HTN, PUU, SEO, KBR) exist in seven host animals in the south of the Russian Far East. Studies by L. Minskaya et al. Show that viruses isolated from non-main host animals are similar in antigenicity to standard strains, but are genetically and molecularly isolated from main host animals.
    Actual View of Hantavirus under a microscope
    Live View of Hantavirus under a microscope


    Different viruses: A. Vaheri et al.'s research showed that the Top virus isolated from Siberian lemming and the KBR virus S fragment isolated from Oriental voles have homology nucleotide levels of 82% and amino acid levels of 96%.

    PUU virus S isolated from European palm back The fragment homology nucleotide level was 77% and the amino acid level was 87%.
    Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three viruses had a common origin, consistent with the phylogenetic analysis of the cytochrome B gene of the corresponding host animal, indicating that there was horizontal transmission between the host animals during the evolution of the three viruses.
    Among them, the 3'-NCR of the TOP virus M and S fragments is the longest, and it may be the earliest among the three Hantaviruses. 

    JWSong et al. reported that different HTN virus strains derived from Korean guinea pigs had 95% to 99% homology of the 324bp fragment of the M gene, 424bp of cytochrome B gene of the guinea pig, and 0% to 3.1% of the sequence difference of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. 
    This shows that different regions of South Korea have the same genetic background, HTN virus has the same source, and no large mutation of HTN virus strain and its host animal has been found in South Korea. 

    Phylogenetic analysis by Heiske A. et al. Showed that the PUU virus in western Europe is different from the PUU virus in Sweden, Finland and Russia. 
    The open reading frame genes of the S branch of the same branch of the PUU virus differ by less than 8%.

    The difference in open reading frame genes between the fragments is greater than 14%. 
    The amino acid sequences of the same branched PUU virus nuclear protein differ from 0% to 2%, and the amino acid sequences of different branched PUU virus nuclear protein differ from 3% to 5%.

    Data indicate that the European palm back in different regions can be divided into several subclasses. 
    This research supports the view that the PUU virus co-evolved with its host animals.

    L. Ivanov et al. studied KBR virus originating from Oriental voles in the Far East of Russia.
     The results showed that there was a 0.5% to 4.0% genetic difference between different KRB virus strains. 

    The relationship between the genetic difference and the mouse catching area was greater than the relationship with the year of the mouse catching, indicating that there is a long-term co-evolution between KBR virus and Oriental voles.
    Hantavirus View and vaccines


    Hantavirus Vaccines and antiviral research

    In recent years, great progress has been made in the development of HFRS vaccines. 
    Some types of vaccines have been approved for production and use by the state, some have entered clinical observation, and some are being developed and tested in the laboratory.

    Three monovalent inactivated vaccines that have been successfully developed and trial-produced in Asia have been inoculated and observed in large groups of people.
     They are safe and have good serological and epidemiological effects.

    The average protection rate in the short-term (1 year after basic immunization) and medium-term (2 years after basic immunization).

    Type II hamster vaccines were 97.81% and 88.73%, respectively. Type I Shanghai gerbil vaccines were 94.08% and 91.72%, respectively.

    Type I The gerbils of Tianyuan gerbils were 100.00%. The type brain germs were 88.45% and 100.00%, respectively. 
    Phase II clinical trial of inactivated bivalent gerbil kidney vaccine.

    The total response rate is 2.5%. After 3 shots, the immunofluorescence antibody positive rate is 100.00%, and the neutralizing antibody positive rate is 87.6% (for type I virus).


    And 96.3% (for type II virus), the positive conversion rate of a single serotype was 100.00%, and the positive conversion rate of both serotypes was 75.00%.

    Studies on Hantavirus-inactivated rat brain vaccine (Hantavax) produced in South Korea show that the positive rate of serum antibodies detected by immunofluorescence test and high-density particle agglutination test after one year of basic immunization was 42.5% and 45%, respectively, and the neutralization antibody positive rate 13%. 
     
    After 1 year of basic immunization, the serum antibody positive rate was 92%, and the neutralizing antibody positive rate increased to 80%.
    In addition, D. Koletzki et al. constructed a hepatitis B virus chimera carrying the hantavirus nuclear protein gene, immunized animals with and without adjuvant, and produced specific antibodies against hepatitis B virus and hantavirus. K.

    Kamrud et al evaluated the Hantavirus expressed by naked virus DNA and alphavirus.

    Phage display technology

    Using phage display technology, C. de Carvalho Nicacio et al., Tuomas Heiskanen et al. and Liang Mifang et al. respectively developed recombinant antibodies against Hantavirus, opening up prospects for future immunotherapy of HFRS. 
    W.E. Severson et al. Reported the effect of ribavirin on Hantavirus replication.
    Molecular and Cell Biology of Hanta virus

    Molecular and Cell Biology

    Scholars from various countries have conducted research on the molecular biology and cell biology of Hantavirus in many aspects. 
    T.M.Welzel et al. and Bai Xuefan et al. used gene fragment phage surface presentation technology to study the recognition site of the Hantavirus monoclonal antibody. 
    E. Mackow et al. prepared monoclonal antibodies against SN virus nuclear protein expressed by baculovirus for serological typing of HPS-associated viruses, and studied the recognition sites of monoclonal antibodies through NY-1 virus nuclear protein mutations. 

    After transfecting Vero-E6 cells with plasmid DNA containing Hantavirus antigenomics, JWHooper et al. Can detect the expressed NP and G1 and G2 glycoproteins by immunoprecipitation, but cannot detect the polymerization by biochemical and functional analysis. Enzyme protein, also not detected.


    What is the Laboratory Diagnosis of Hantavirus?

    Infectious virus. Research by B. Anheier et al. Showed that the localization of Hantavirus G1 and G2 polymers in the Golgi apparatus is guided by the G1 protein, and the G2 protein stabilizes the molecular localization.

    Changes in the amino acids of the G1 protein may change the structure of the G1 and then affect the polymer formation.

    Studies by E.V. Ravkov et al. have shown that BCC virus nuclear proteins interact with actin fibers and may play an important role in the assembly and / or release of Hantavirus. 
    B.J. Meyer et al. used Northern hybridization, RNase protection test, RT-PCR, clone sequencing and other methods to study the continuous infection of Hantavirus in Vero-E6 cells.

    Epidemiology

    The first case of HPS was found in Chile in 1995. Only 8 cases developed from October 1995 to July 1997, and 20 cases occurred from October to December 1997. 
    They involved 11 regions across the country.

    The average age of onset was 29.7 years, and the mortality was 61%. Viral gene analysis showed that the disease was mainly caused by Andes virus. 
    The authors believe that the increase in HPS cases is related to an increase in the number of local Hantavirus host animals. 

    A total of 639 HFRS91 cases occurred in Russia from 1978 to 1996, distributed in 61 of 89 administrative regions, of which 96.4% came from the European part of Russia and 3.6% came from the Asian part.

    Serology and genotyping indicate that at least six serotypes of Hantavirus exist in Russia: HTN, PUU, SEO, TUL, KRB, TOP. 199 cases of HFRS occurred in Belgium from October 1995 to December 1996. 
    The seasonal distribution showed small peaks in winter and spring and large peaks in summer and autumn.
    The patients were mainly infected with PUU serotype. 
    A total of 21 cases of HPS occurred in Canada as of November 1997, distributed in three western provinces, with a case fatality rate of 33%.

    Epidemiological investigations have shown that host animals carrying the virus are distributed throughout the country, and the incidence of HPS is related to the opportunity to contact rodents. 

    The host animal was detected to carry hantavirus from 16 of 17 seaports and 2 of 3 airfields in Japan. 
    The authors proposed that a surveillance system should be established and corresponding precautions should be taken to check the virus infection rate in the population.

    Ecology

    Changes in climate, rodent habitat conditions, rodent reproduction strength, and population composition affect rat density, while host animal virus infection rates change continuously with time and place.

    Different rat densities, host animal virus infection rates, and opportunities for contact with the population affect the outbreak or spread of the disease.

    TSChiueh et al.'s seroepidemiological study in Taiwan showed that although there were no confirmed HFRS patients in the local area, hantavirus infection was present in the host animals. 
    Among occupational populations in contact with rodents and chronic renal failure and fever patients, serum antibody positive rate is higher.

     C. Ahlm et al. Reported that wild moose in northern Sweden had a lower Hantavirus infection rate. Yun-Tai Lee and others found that South Korean bats and brown-headed ravens carry PUU virus.

    Research by O.A. Alexeyev et al. Showed that most (74%) of PUU-positive European brown backs could not detect viral RNA or antigen and were not infectious.

    In addition, in order to show the relationship between the adaptability of Hantavirus strains to Vero-E6 cells and the type of host animal, L. Ivanov et al.

    Used mouse lung specimens to calculate Hantavirus antigen titer, virus isolation success rate, and virus isolation days to calculate the adaptation index. 
    The black-lined marmot is 0.32, the Dalin marmot is 0.17, the oriental vole is 0.10, and the brown back is 0.06.
    Clinical of Hanta virus

    Clinical

    Multiple reports have investigated the sequelae of HFRS and HPS, and studies have shown that patients recovering from both diseases have abnormal kidney or lung function compared to healthy people.

    M. Howard et al. Investigated pregnant women with HPS and found that the prognosis of pregnant women with HPS is the same as that of other HPS patients.

    The fetuses of pregnant women with HPS are not significantly different from those of other pregnant women with respiratory distress syndrome. 
    No vertical transmission of SN virus in humans was found in the study.

    What is Pathology and immune response of hantavirus?

    HL Van Epps et al. Studied the response to human T lymphocytes infected with HTN virus, including nuclear protein or G1 protein and T cell lines.

    Some of the T cell lines targeting nuclear proteins cross-reacted with unknown virus nuclear proteins, and targeted T cell lines of nucleoprotein or G1 protein did not cross-react with unknown virus proteins.
     This cross-reaction of human T cell lines that cause different Hantavirus disease (HFRS and HPS) strains is pathological.

    Hemodialysis

    It is of great significance in research and vaccine development. Another study conducted by FAEnnis et al. Isolated T cell lines from the blood of HPS patients. 
    Some cell lines recognize regions that are relatively conserved among different hantavirus strains, but some T cell lines cannot recognize a single amino acid of hantavirus. 

    Alternately, other T cell lines are able to recognize distantly related isolates, such as the corresponding regions of the Andes and Pumara viruses. C.

    Mansilla and other autopsy results of Andes virus-killed patients showed that the pathological changes caused by Andes-HPS and SNV-HPS are similar to the distribution of viral antigens, but congestive myocarditis and type II pulmonary monocyte activity were found in cases of Andes-HPS.
    There is more liver staining. M. Bharadwaj et al Detected viral RNA from the trachea of ​​Andes-HPS patients and suggested that Andean virus may be transmitted from person to person.

     Other reports have investigated the role of blood histamine and bradykinin, lipid peroxides, vasopressin, lysosomes and adenosine triphosphatase in erythrocytes in pathological changes in HFRS.

    S.C.St Jeor et al. studied the persistent infection of SN virus in deer mice.
    Within weeks to months after infection, as the antibody level increased, the virus disappeared in the serum and the virus in other tissues decreased.

     Hutchinson et al. Studied the infection of BCC virus in cotton wool rats. 
    In the first few weeks after infection, quantitative PCR detected viral cRNA in tissues other than blood, and the viral cRNA decreased after 5 months.

    Detected in the brain; infectious virus is present in the blood 1 week after infection, peaks at 2 weeks, and decreases significantly at 3 weeks; infectious virus can still be detected at low levels in the adrenal glands, liver, kidneys and testicles 5 months after infection.

    The virus can be isolated in the urine 70 days after infection. BCC antibodies can be detected 14 days after infection. 
    Studies by Yang Shoujing and others show that HFRS shock and hemorrhage-induced ischemia can cause heat shock response, and 72KD and 73KD heat shock proteins are expressed in patient tissues, protecting tissue cells from damage.

    In their other study, the detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigens and vimentin antibodies during cell division showed that during HFRS tissue damage, there was cell regeneration and DNA repair. 
    The degree of repair was related to the severity of the damage.

    HFRS is one of the viral diseases that seriously endangers the health of our people. 
    Since, the successful isolation of the virus in the early 1980s, research on HFRS and Hantavirus has achieved a lot of results, especially the development of inactivated vaccines in recent years, which has created conditions for effective prevention of the disease.
    However, we still have gaps with foreign research in etiology, laboratory diagnosis, immunopathology and molecular biology, and there are still many problems to be solved. 
    With the deepening of the research in the future, the gradual deepening of the understanding of the disease can finally effectively control the epidemic in Asia.

    What is the Treatment of Hantavirus?

    1. Early antiviral therapy

    The onset of HFRS is mainly caused by the direct action of the virus. The duration of viremia and peripheral blood mononuclear cells is generally 7 to 10 days or longer.
     Early antiviral treatment can block pathological damage, reduce disease and reduce mortality. 
    Interferon and ribavirin have a positive effect. Can be applied within 7 days of disease, the course of treatment is 5-7 days.

    2. Reasonable comprehensive fluid therapy is the most important Hantavirus Treatment

    Preventive treatment should be emphasized, and there are different principles of fluid therapy in different stages. 
    Mainly balance salt solution, and adjust its composition and dosage appropriately according to the results of laboratory tests. Hypoproteinemia should be actively corrected.

    Prevent kidney damage early

    The degree of kidney damage during fever is relatively mild. Renal damage is aggravated by a variety of factors, such as plasma exudation, blood concentration, insufficient blood volume and DIC. Therefore, corresponding measures should be taken in response to the above factors, which is an important strategy to improve the outcome of this disease.

    What are the Oliguria uremia and various complications associated with Hantavirus?

    For example, high blood volume, high blood pressure, heart failure, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage from the cavity, comorbidities of the nervous system and renal rupture are the five leading causes of death. They all occur during the acute uremia of renal failure. Important means of saving lives should be widely used.
    Hantavirus Outbreak as compaed to other viruses

    U.S. National park outbreak of hantavirus

    A fatal Hantavirus infection has recently appeared in the camping area of ​​Yosemite National Park, a resort in California, the United States. As of September 7, the death toll has risen to three.
    It is reported that the third deceased person came from the state of West Virginia in the United States. 
    Currently, the total number of confirmed Hantavirus infections has reached 8 and is likely to continue to rise.

    The two previous deceased were from California and Pennsylvania. Others were from California, and park staff said their condition had eased.

    U.S. health officials have reportedly warned 39 countries that citizens of the country who had camped in Yosemite National Park this summer could be infected with the deadly Hantavirus.
    Experts said that about 10,000 people were at risk of contracting Hantavirus lung syndrome because they visited Yosemite National Park between June and August, and about 2,500 were from countries outside the United States.
    There is currently no cure for the disease, but early detection through blood tests can greatly increase the chances of survival.

    Latest News on Hanta Virus

    1 migrant worker died of Hantavirus 2020-03-24 09:04
    At about 4 am on March 23, Shandong Rongcheng Luyang Aquatic Food Co., Ltd. leased a bus from Shandong Weihai Longwei Passenger Transport Co., Ltd., picked up the workers in Mengding Town, Lincang City, Yunnan Province, returned to Shandong, and passed Ankang City, Shaanxi Province.
    In Ningshan County, Tian Moumou had discomfort. The Ankang Disease Control Center tested the deceased and 2 fever and 1 accompanying person for the first time.

    The first new coronary pneumonia virus nucleic acid test was negative. The dead man was a Hantaum virus (hemorrhagic fever) nucleic acid. 
    The test is positive, and the nucleic acid test of other people is collecting and sending samples.




    Author's Bio

    Doctor Shawna Reason, Virologist
    Dr. Shawna Reason
    Name: Shawna Reason

    Education: MBBS, MD

    Occupation: Medical Doctor / Virologist 

    Specialization: Medical Science, Micro Biology / Virology, Natural Treatment

    Experience: 15 Years as a Medical Practitioner

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