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Hantavirus Symptoms Transmission Treatment. Hanta Virus Full Study


Symptoms Complete Analysis of the Hantavirus, including Information on Transmission and Treatment

Hantavirus's definition is: The Bunyaviridae family is home to the hantavirus. It is a segmented negative strand RNA virus with an envelope. L, M, and S, which encode the L polymerase protein, G1, and G2 glycoproteins, are three of the genome's segments.


Definition of Hantavirus:  An enveloped segmented negative-strand RNA virus with three genomic pieces, L, M, and S, encoding the L polymerase protein and G1 and G2 glycoproteins, is referred to as a hantavirus.

   

Summary of the Hantavirus

The Bunyaviridae family is home to the hantavirus. It is a segmented negative strand RNA virus with an envelope. The L polymerase protein, G1 and G2 glycoproteins, and three other proteins are encoded by the genome's segments L, M and S.

 


     

    How many viruses are there in the Hantavirus?

    Included in hantavirus are the following:

    • The hemorrhagic fever-causing Hantaan virus (HTNV), which also causes renal syndrome (HFRS)

    • The Dobravirus (Dobrava virus, DOBV), the Puumala virus (SEOV), and the Seoul virus (SEOV)

    • The Hantavirus lung syndrome is brought on by a nameless virus called the Sin Nombre virus (SNV) (HPS)

    • Black Creek Canal Virus 

    • Andes virus (ANV) 

    • Bayou virus (BAYV) 

    • A class of viruses, such as the Prospect Hill virus, whose connection to human diseases is not obvious (PHV)

    • Virus from Thailand (Thailand virus) (THAIV)

    • El Moro Canyon virus (ELMCV), Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), Khabarovsk virus (KBRV), Tula virus (TULV), and Rio Segundo virus (RIOSV)

    • Rio Mamore virus (RMV) 

    • New York virus (BCCNV)

    • Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) 

    • Muleshoe virus (MULEV) 

    • Bloodland Lake virus (BLLLV) 

    • Topografov virus (TOPV), etc.


    Hantavirus research has advanced significantly in recent years thanks to the use of new technology and the discovery of novel viruses.

    The 4th International HFRS and Hantavirus Conference was place in Atlanta, USA, from March 5–7, 1998. International professionals and academics exchanged the most recent study techniques and findings in this area.


    Classification and distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hantavirus renal syndrome hemorrhagic fever (HFRS)

    Classification and Distribution: There are two different forms of hantavirus. One causes the hemorrhagic fever caused by the Hantavirus Renal Syndrome and the other causes the HPS (HFRS).

    The former is common in the US, and cases have also been found in Bolivia, Germany, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Paraguay.

    After prodromal symptoms including fever and headache approximately 4 days, and severe 3-7 days, acute respiratory failure with noncardiogenic pulmonary edoema and significant mortality (52.4% -78.0%) are the primary clinical signs.

    In terms of death, the survivors heal rapidly and without complications.

    The latter is a common hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia, and molecular biological study on it has once again demonstrated that the virus is a factor, the kidney is an early primary harm organ, and the pathogenesis is primarily due to the direct pathogenic involvement of the virus.

     

    What is Hantavirus Diagnosis?

    Research on the experimental diagnosis of Hantavirus mainly focuses on the application of recombinant antigens and the rapid, sensitive, and specificity of experimental diagnostic methods.

    The utilisation of recombinant antigens and the speed, sensitivity, and specificity of experimental diagnostic techniques are the key areas of focus in research on the experimental diagnosis of hantavirus.

    For a quick serological diagnosis of hantavirus disease, F. Elgh et al. used the PUU virus recombinant nuclear protein as an antigen and coupled it to latex in a latex microparticle agglutination test.

    It is 90% and the sensitivity is 94% when compared to ELISA utilising PUU virus recombinant nuclear protein as antigen.

     ELISA was performed utilising baculovirus-expressed HTN, SEO, and PUU nucleoproteins, and at least two recombinant antigens (HTN and PUU or SEO and PUU) were employed.

    The immunofluorescence assay (IFA), which can identify HTN from SEO viral infection, uses the nuclear protein of the HTN or SEO virus that has had its N-terminus removed as an antigen.

    In ELISA and IFA, recombinant nucleoproteins and N-terminally deleted nucleoproteins are employed to provide a quick, accurate, and secure means of diagnosing hantavirus infection.

     H. Kallio-Kokko et al. employed PUU virus nuclear protein expressed by baculovirus for IgG and IgM detection and by E. coli for IgM detection, and the sensitivity was 100%.

    The sensitivity of the IgG test using some of the produced nuclear proteins was only about 70%.

    They also stated that in two-thirds of acute PUU virus infection cases, viral RNA from patients' blood or urine can be detected using RT-PCR.

    T. Tomiyama et al. used the high-density particle agglutination test (HDPA) for quick serological diagnosis of viral infections and coated high-density positive particles with pure Hantavirus antigen.

    In addition to a limited amount of cross-reactivity to PUU and SN virus infection, there is specificity. 

    IFA and HDPA have equal sensitivity levels, however HDPA is simpler and faster. Immunoblot tests were used in a field experiment to find antibodies to the murine virus, according to W. Irwin et al.

    Qiu Jianming and others using reverse transcription kits, combined magnetic separation technology with an enhanced guanidine isothiocyanate-phenol one-step approach to extract viral RNA, and 5′-end biotin-labeled Hantan virus-specific oligonucleotide probes.

    PCR for the identification of serum from HFRS patients.


    Within seven days, patient sera were detected positively 100% of the time, and between eight and fourteen days, they were detected positively 57.14% of the time.

    The patient sera could still identify 22.73% positive after 15 days.

    By using dot blot detection to confirm that the amplified product was particular amplification, a specific, sensitive, quick, and direct diagnostic approach for the early diagnosis of HFRS patients was made available.


    What is Hantavirus Genetic Analysis?

    To investigate the relationships between Hantavirus isolates or host animals as well as the co-evolution of viruses and host animals, researchers from many nations have embraced the method of virus and host gene analysis.


    Analysis of the Hantavirus gene

    Two PUU-associated viral strains were isolated from the Korean Eothenomys regulus and given the names Muju (MUJ) virus by J.W. Song et al.


    Two Strains

    The 241 bp portion of the virus's G2 gene's sequence varied by 1.2%. The 208bp fragment of the S gene and the 241bp fragment of the G2 gene had a homology of 79.5% to 83.4% and 80.3% to 81.2%, respectively, with the equivalent sequence of the PUU virus.

    HTN virus isolated from Apodemus, HFRS patients, and Russian Far Eastern rats (Clethrionomys). L. Yashina et al.

    M fragment sequence homology ranges from 86% to 89%.


    The M segment sequence of the SEO virus is the same as that seen in patients with light HFRS. Source: 97%

    The existence of a PH-like virus in Canadian prairie voles has been shown for the first time by M. Drebot.


     In different Canadian provinces, the M and S segments of the SN virus have 25% different sequences.

    The genetic sequence of the SN virus strain in western Canada is more closely related to that of the strain seen in eastern Canada.

    The viral strain generated from the Indonesian rattooth rat can be amplified by SEO-type specific primers, according to Yong-Kyu Chu et al.

    The 290bp M fragment's sequence analysis reveals a 7% variation from the SEO virus.

    Two strains of SEO viruses existed, and one of them could be amplified using primers specific to HTN-type viruses.

    The 290 bp M fragment's sequence analysis revealed a 1% variation from the THAI 749 strain.

     

    The nucleoprotein and G2 glycoprotein amino acid sequence homology between the TUL viruses from Poland and central Russia and Czechoslovakia was greater than 96%, according to JWSong et al.

    The TUL viruses from Poland and central Russia were the most closely related, according to phylogenetic research, but there are other differences as well.

     

    Another study by C. Sibold et al.-Phylogenetic investigation of nucleoprotein-encoding genes revealed that the Western and Eastern Slovak TUL viruses are related to the Czech TUL virus and the Central Russian TUL virus, respectively.

     

    The TUL virus in East Slovakia is comparable to the TUL virus in West Slovakia and the Czech Republic, according to the 3'-NCR system occurrence study.

     

    The authors speculate that the Central European and Russian TUL viruses may have been recombined to create the Eastern Slovak TUL virus.


    Host animal genetic analysis

    Most often, techniques for cytochrome B gene analysis are applied. Microsatellite DNA analysis was utilised by W.C. Black IV and colleagues to investigate the mechanism of hantavirus transmission in the murine fossa as well as the genetic link between deer and rats.


    Co-evolution of hosts and viruses

    In the southern Russian Far East, seven host species are home to four hantaviruses (HTN, PUU, SEO, and KBR). L. Minskaya et alstudies .'s Show that viruses isolated from secondary hosts are identical to standard strains in terms of antigenicity while being genetically and molecularly distinct from primary hosts.


    Actual View of Hantavirus under a microscope
    Live View of Hantavirus under a microscope


    Different viruses: According to study by A. Vaheri et al., the homologous nucleotide levels of the Top virus, which was isolated from Siberian lemmings, and the KBR virus S fragment, which was recovered from Oriental voles, are 82% and 96%, respectively.

    S isolation of the PUU virus from European palm back The nucleotide level of fragment homology was 77%, while the amino acid level was 87%.

    In accordance with the phylogenetic analysis of the cytochrome B gene of the corresponding host animal, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three viruses shared a common ancestor, demonstrating that there was horizontal transmission between the host animals during the evolution of the three viruses.

    The TOP virus M and S fragments' 3'-NCR is the longest and maybe the oldest of the three Hantaviruses.

     

    According to JWSong et al., the 324 bp fragment of the M gene, 424 bp of the guinea pig's cytochrome B gene, and 0% to 3.1% of the sequence difference of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region were all 95% to 99% identical in distinct HTN virus strains derived from Korean guinea pigs.

    This demonstrates that the genetic backgrounds of South Korean locations are the same, the source of the HTN virus is the same, and there haven't been any significant HTN viral strain or host animal mutations discovered there.

     

    Heiske A. et alphylogenetic .'s analysis shown the distinction between the PUU viruses in Sweden, Finland, and Russia and western Europe.

    Less than 8% separates the S branch's open reading frame genes from those in the same branch of the PUU virus.

     

    Over 14% of the open reading frame genes vary between the pieces.

    The differences between the amino acid sequences of the same branched PUU virus nuclear protein range from 0% to 2%, and they range from 3% to 5% for different branched PUU virus nuclear proteins.

     

    According to data, there are various subclasses of the European palm back that can be found in various places.

    According to this study, the PUU virus and its host animals co-evolved.

     

    KBR virus from Oriental voles was researched by L. Ivanov et al. in the Far East of Russia.

    The findings revealed a genetic variation between various KRB virus strains ranging from 0.5% to 4.0%.

     

    It is clear that the KBR virus and Oriental voles have co-evolved over a long period of time because the genetic difference was more correlated with the mouse-catching region than it was with the year.


    Hantavirus View and vaccines


    Research on Hantavirus vaccines and antivirals

    A lot of progress has been made recently in the creation of HFRS vaccines.

    Others vaccine types are now being researched and tested in the lab, while others are being observed in clinical settings and some have received state approval for production and usage.

    Three monovalent inactivated vaccines that were successfully created and tested in Asia have been administered to and monitored in sizable populations.

    They are risk-free with positive serological and epidemiological outcomes.

    Short-term (1 year after receiving basic vaccination) and medium-term average protection rates (2 years after basic immunization).


    There were 97.81% and 88.73%, respectively, of Type II hamster vaccinations. Type I Shanghai gerbil vaccines had corresponding success rates of 94.08% and 91.72%.

    Type I Tianyuan gerbils' gerbils had a success rate of 100%. There were 88.45% and 100.00%, respectively, of type I brain germs.

    Inactivated bivalent gerbil kidney vaccine phase II clinical trial.

    2.5% of respondents overall responded. After three doses, 87.6% of neutralising antibodies and 100.00% of immunofluorescence antibodies have been found to be positive (for type I virus).


    Additionally, 96.3% (for type II virus), a single serotype's positive conversion rate was 100.00%, and both serotypes' positive conversion rates were 75.00%.

    Studies on the South Korean-produced Hantavirus-inactivated rat brain vaccine (Hantavax) reveal that after one year of basic immunisation, the positive serum antibody detection rates by immunofluorescence test and high-density particle agglutination test were 42.5% and 45%, respectively, and the positive neutralisation antibody detection rate was 13%. 
     

    Following a year of basic immunisation, 92% of serum antibodies tested positive and 80% of neutralising antibodies did as well.

    Additionally, D. Koletzki et al. created a hepatitis B viral chimaera that contained the nuclear protein gene of a hantavirus, inoculated animals with and without adjuvant, and generated specific antibodies against both the hepatitis B virus and the hantavirus. K.

    The Hantavirus expressed by alphavirus and bare virus DNA was examined by Kamrud et al.


    Phage technique for displays

    Recombinant antibodies against the Hantavirus were created using phage display technology by C. de Carvalho Nicacio, Tuomas Heiskanen, and Liang Mifang, respectively, opening the door for future HFRS immunotherapy.

    The impact of ribavirin on the replication of the Hantavirus was reported by W.E. Severson et al.


    Molecular and Cell Biology of Hanta virus

    Cellular and molecular biology

    Researchers from many nations have studied the molecular biology and cell biology of the hantavirus in many different contexts.

    The Hantavirus monoclonal antibody's recognition site was investigated using gene fragment phage surface presentation technology by T.M. Welzel et al. and Bai Xuefan et al.
     
    For serological typing of HPS-associated viruses, E. Mackow et al. developed monoclonal antibodies against the nuclear protein of the SN virus generated by baculovirus, and they investigated the recognition sites of these antibodies using changes in the nuclear protein of the NY-1 virus. 

    JWHooper et al. were able to detect the expressed NP and G1 and G2 glycoproteins by immunoprecipitation after transfecting Vero-E6 cells with plasmid DNA expressing Hantavirus antigenomics, but they were unable to detect the polymerization by biochemical and functional analyses. Protein for enzymes was not found either.


    What is the Hantavirus laboratory diagnosis?

    Infectious virus. Research by B. Anheier et al. Showed that the localization of Hantavirus G1 and G2 polymers in the Golgi apparatus is guided by the G1 protein, and the G2 protein stabilizes the molecular localization.

    A change in the G1 protein's amino acids could alter its structure, which would then have an impact on how polymers are formed.


    BCC virus nuclear proteins interact with actin fibres, according to research by E.V. Ravkov et al. This interaction may be crucial for the assembly and/or release of Hantavirus.

    In order to analyse the ongoing infection of Hantavirus in Vero-E6 cells, B.J. Meyer et al. used Northern hybridization, RNase protection test, RT-PCR, clone sequencing, and other techniques.


    Epidemiology

    In Chile, the first HPS case was discovered in 1995. Between October 1995 and July 1997, there were only 8 cases, and between October and December 1997, there were 20 cases.

    They involved 11 different national regions.


    The death rate was 61%, and the average age of onset was 29.7 years. The sickness was mostly brought on by the Andes virus, according to viral gene research.

    According to the authors, an increase in the number of Hantavirus host animals in the area is a contributing factor to the rise in HPS cases.

    Between 1978 and 1996, there were 639 HFRS91 cases in Russia, spread among 61 of the country's 89 administrative areas, with 96.4% of those cases coming from Europe and 3.6% from Asia.

    According to genotyping and serology, Russia is home to at least six different hantavirus serotypes, including HTN, PUU, SEO, TUL, and KRB. From October 1995 to December 1996, Belgium saw 199 cases of HFRS.

    Small winter and spring peaks and enormous summer and fall peaks could be seen in the seasonal distribution.

    The majority of the patients had the PUU serotype of infection.

    As of November 1997, there had been a total of 21 cases of HPS in Canada, divided among three western provinces, with a 33% case fatality rate.

     

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that rodent exposure increases the risk of contracting HPS. Host animals that transmit the virus are widely dispersed throughout the nation.

     

    From 16 of 17 seaports and 2 of 3 airports in Japan, hantavirus was found to be present in the host animal.

    The authors suggested setting up a monitoring system and taking the necessary safety measures to monitor the prevalence of viral infection in the populace.


    Ecology

    Rat density is influenced by changes in the environment, rodent habitat, rodent reproduction, and population makeup, while rates of host animal virus infection fluctuate constantly across time and space.

    The outbreak or spread of the disease is influenced by various rat densities, host animal virus infection rates, and possibilities for interaction with the populace.

    TSChiueh et al.'s seroepidemiological study in Taiwan showed that although there were no confirmed HFRS patients in the local area, hantavirus infection was present in the host animals. 

    Serum antibody positivity rates are higher among occupational populations exposed to rodents, individuals with chronic renal failure, and patients with fever.


    Wild moose in northern Sweden showed a reduced rate of Hantavirus infection, according to C. Ahlm et al. Yun-Tai Lee and others discovered that the PUU virus is carried by brown-headed ravens and bats in South Korea.

    The majority (74%) of European brown backs with PUU positivity could not be infectious due to lack of viral RNA or antigen, according to research by O.A. Alexeyev et al.


    Additionally, L. Ivanov et al. demonstrated a correlation between the kind of host animal and the adaptation of Hantavirus strains to Vero-E6 cells.

    Hantavirus antigen titer, virus isolation success rate, and virus isolation days were determined using mouse lung specimens to determine the adaption index.

    The Dalin marmot is 0.17, the oriental vole is 0.10, the brown back is 0.06, and the black-lined marmot is 0.32.


    Clinical of Hanta virus

    Clinical

    Clinical Studies have indicated that patients recuperating from both disorders have impaired kidney or lung function when compared to healthy people. Numerous reports have examined the consequences of HFRS and HPS.


    Pregnant women with HPS were investigated by M. Howard et al. They discovered that their prognosis is the same as that of other HPS patients.

    Pregnant women with HPS do not significantly differ from other pregnant women with respiratory distress syndrome in terms of their foetuses.

    The study showed no evidence of vertical transmission of the SN virus in humans.


    What does hantavirus pathology and immune response mean?

    HL Van Epps et al. investigated the reaction to nuclear protein or G1 protein and T cell lines and human T cells infected with HTN virus.

    Some T cell lines that target nuclear proteins have cross-reactions with unknown viral nuclear proteins, but T cell lines that target nucleoproteins or G1 proteins have no such interactions.

    This interaction between the human T cell lines (HFRS and HPS) that induce various strains of the hantavirus is pathogenic.


    Hemodialysis

    In terms of research and vaccine development, it is quite important. FAEnnis et al. conducted yet another investigation. isolated T cell lines derived from HPS patients' blood.

    However, some T cell lines are unable to recognise even one hantavirus amino acid. Some cell lines can recognise areas that are comparatively conserved across several hantavirus strains.

    Andes and Pumara viruses' corresponding regions are examples of isolates that other T cell lines can detect despite their distant relationships. C.

    Congestive myocarditis and type II pulmonary monocyte activity were discovered in cases of Andes-HPS, although Mansilla and other autopsy results of Andes virus-killed patients demonstrated that the pathological changes caused by Andes-HPS and SNV-HPS are similar to the distribution of viral antigens.

    More liver stains are present. According to M. Bharadwaj et al., who discovered viral RNA in the tracheas of Andes-HPS patients, the Andean virus may spread from person to person.


    Other studies have looked into the pathological changes in HFRS caused by blood histamine and bradykinin, lipid peroxides, vasopressin, lysosomes, and adenosine triphosphatase in erythrocytes.

    S.C.St Jeor et al. investigated the SN virus infection in deer mice that persisted throughout time.

    Following infection, the virus vanished from the serum and diminished in other tissues within a few weeks to months as the antibody level rose.


     Infected cotton wool rats were the subject of research by Hutchinson et al.

    Quantitative PCR found viral cRNA in tissues other than blood in the first few weeks following infection, and the viral cRNA declined after five months.

    Infectious virus is discovered in the brain; it is present in the blood 1 week after infection, peaks at 2 weeks, and rapidly declines at 3 weeks; it is still detectable at low levels in the testicles, liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands 5 months after infection.

    70 days after infection, the virus can be isolated in the urine. Fourteen days after the infection, BCC antibodies can be found.

    According to research by Yang Shoujing and colleagues, hemorrhage-induced ischemia and HFRS shock can both result in a heat shock response, and patient tissues express the heat shock proteins 72KD and 73KD, which shield tissue cells from harm.

     

    In their second investigation, it was demonstrated that there was cell regeneration and DNA repair during HFRS tissue damage by the identification of proliferating cell nuclear antigens and vimentin antibodies during cell division.

    The extent of the repairs was correlated with the damage's severity.

     

    One of the viral infections that poses a severe threat to the health of our population is HFRS.

    Research on HFRS and Hantavirus has produced several results since the virus was successfully isolated in the early 1980s, particularly the recent creation of inactivated vaccines, which has established the circumstances for efficient disease prevention.

    But there are still numerous issues to be resolved, including gaps in our understanding of aetiology, laboratory diagnostics, immunopathology, and molecular biology.

    Future study will allow for a steady strengthening of knowledge of the illness, which will allow for the successful control of the epidemic in Asia.


    What is the Treatment of Hantavirus?

    1. Early antiviral treatment

    The virus's direct action is mostly responsible for the start of HFRS. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and viremia typically last for 7 to 10 days or longer.

    Early antiviral therapy can stop disease progression, lessen illness, and lower death.

    Both interferon and ribavirin are beneficial. can be used within 7 days after the onset of the illness, and the treatment period lasts 5-7 days.


    2. Reasonable comprehensive fluid therapy is the most important Hantavirus Treatment

    It is important to prioritise preventive care, and different fluid therapy principles apply at different phases.

    Mostly balance salt solution, and correctly modify its composition and dosage based on the findings of laboratory tests. Action should be taken to treat hypoproteinemia.


    Avoid early kidney injury

    Kidney damage caused by fever is typically minor. Multiple factors, including plasma exudation, blood concentration, insufficient blood volume, and DIC, exacerbate renal injury. In order to improve the course of this disease, corresponding actions should be made in response to the aforementioned causes.


    What causes oliguria uremia and other Hantavirus-related complications?

    For instance, the top five killers include renal rupture, high blood pressure, heart failure, pulmonary edoema, cavity bleeding, diseases of the neurological system, and excessive blood volume. They are all brought on by acute uremia brought on by renal failure. Useful life-saving tools should be widely distributed.


    Hantavirus Outbreak as compaed to other viruses

    US National Park Hantavirus outbreak

    Yosemite National Park, a resort in California, has lately experienced an outbreak of a deadly Hantavirus illness. The death toll has increased to three as of September 7.

    According to reports, the third person who passed away was a native of the American state of West Virginia.

    There have been 8 confirmed cases of the hantavirus so far, and the number will probably keep growing.

    The two previous victims were from Pennsylvania and California, respectively. The park workers reported that the condition of some of the Californian visitors had improved.

    According to reports, U.S. health officials have alerted 39 nations that their people who tented in Yosemite National Park this summer may have been exposed to the deadly Hantavirus.

    According to experts, around 10,000 - 2,500 people of them were from outside the United States were at danger of developing Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome because they visited Yosemite National Park between June and August.

    Although there is presently no cure for the illness, blood tests can significantly improve survival rates if the sickness is caught early.


    Latest Hanta Virus News

    Hantavirus caused the death of 1 migrant worker 2020-03-24 09:04

    On March 23, around 4 am, Shandong Rongcheng Luyang Aquatic Food Co., Ltd. rented a bus from Shandong Weihai Longwei Passenger Transport Co., Ltd., picked up the employees in Mengding Town, Lincang City, Yunnan Province, and then drove back to Shandong, passing Ankang City, Shaanxi Province.

    Tian Moumou was uneasy in Ningshan County. The deceased, two people who had fever, and one companion were all tested for the first time by the Ankang Disease Control Center.

     

    The initial nucleic acid test for the novel coronary pneumonia virus came up negative. Hantaum virus (hemorrhagic fever) nucleic acid was the corpse.

    The result is positive, and additional people are gathering and sending samples for nucleic acid testing.




    Author's Bio

    Doctor Shawna Reason, Virologist
    Dr. Shawna Reason
    Name: Shawna Reason

    Education: MBBS, MD

    Occupation: Medical Doctor / Virologist 

    Specialization: Medical Science, Micro Biology / Virology, Natural Treatment

    Experience: 15 Years as a Medical Practitioner

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