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Enterovirus Types Causes Treatment and Prevention

Types Causes Treatment and Prevention of Enterovirus

Enterovirus is a collective name for a group of viruses, including 67 types of poliovirus type 3, kersaki A virus 23, kersaki B virus 6, ycovirus 31, and enterovirus 68-71.

Name: Enterovirus

Nature:    A group of viruses Including Polio virus type III, etc.

Table of Content

    1 Type

    2 Pathogenic

    ▪ Can be passed through the digestive tract

    ▪ Causes multiple diseases

    ▪ Most people with enterovirus infection have mild symptoms

    3 Epidemic and infection

    ▪ Spring and summer are the peak season

    ▪ Period of infection can be as long as several months

    4 High-risk group

    5 Treatment

    6 prevention of infection

    7 Pediatrics Otolaryngology

What are the Types of enteroviruses?

Because enteroviruses inhabit the human digestive tract, they also have similarities in biochemical characteristics, epidemiology, and pathogenicity and are summarized together. 
There is a vaccine against polio virus, so today's children are not threatened by polio virus. Among the diseases that are circulating among children are the serovirus, enterovirus, and enterovirus types 68-71.

How Enteroviruses can Cause Disease?

Digestive tract infections

Enteroviruses are a large family of sixty or seventy different types of picornaviruses with similar properties. One of the most familiar members in this large family is polio virus, in addition to Coxsackie virus, Echo virus and so on. 

Each type of enterovirus can be divided into many groups and many subtypes. These viruses are highly resistant and are not afraid of acids or bile, so they can infect the gut through the digestive tract. 

They can survive in sewage, can survive for several days at room temperature, can be stored for several weeks at 4 ° C, and the virus can survive for several years at -70 ° C. But enteroviruses are afraid of heat. If heated to 60-85 ° C, they will die in 1 minute. 

Formaldehyde or chlorine-containing disinfectants can make it inactive, so adding chloride in the swimming pool can effectively prevent the transmission of enterovirus.
In addition, ultraviolet rays can also kill enteroviruses.  

Entero virus can cause Diseases

How Enteroviruses Cause multiple diseases?

Enteroviruses are called "enteroviruses" because they multiply in the gut when they infect the human body, and then excrete them from feces. But they rarely cause gastrointestinal symptoms. This large family of viruses can cause a variety of diseases, such as polio virus can cause polio (commonly known as polio), ecovirus can cause aseptic meningitis, and enterovirus 70 can cause acute bleeding. Conjunctivitis (commonly known as red eye disease). 

Sometimes, the same type of virus infection can cause different clinical symptoms, such as coxsackie virus infection can cause myocarditis, epidemic myalgia, herpes pharyngitis, hand-foot-mouth disease and meningitis.

Different types of viral infections can cause Similar clinical symptoms, such as Coxsackievirus A16 and Enterovirus 71, can cause hand, foot and mouth disease. 

Many subtypes of Echovirus and Coxsackievirus 6 can cause epidemic myalgia in most people ( (50% -80%) have no clinical symptoms after infection, and some have only mild fever or cold-like symptoms.
In only a few cases can cause hand-foot-mouth disease herpes pharyngitis, myocarditis, meningitis, epidemic myalgia, etc., extremely Causes less death.  

Enterovirus cause Diseases

What are the Symptoms of Enterovirus?

Most enterovirus infections have mild symptoms:According to reports, the clinical manifestations of patients infected with enterovirus are mainly fever, vomiting, and blisters in the hands, feet, and mouth, which is diagnosed as hand, foot and mouth disease. Hand, foot and mouth disease is caused by Coxsackie A16 and Enterovirus 71 in enteroviruses. 

It is more common in children under 5 years old, and occasionally in older children and adults. The incubation period is 2-7 days. Generally, there are no prodromal symptoms, and most of them occur suddenly. Typical cases are fever, body temperature of 38 - 39 , herpes on hands, feet and mouth in 1 - 2 days. 
Oral herpes can occur in any part of the oral mucosa and in the pharynx, tongue, and gums.
 After the herpes breaks, ulcers form. Older children often complain of pain in the mouth and throat. Smaller children show crying, refusing food, and drooling. 

Herpes on the hands and feet often appear on the palms and soles of the feet, sometimes on the elbows, the entire undershirt, and even around the hips. 
Herpes started as a rice-grain rash, and small blisters quickly formed on top of the rash. 

These vesicular vesicles are smaller than varicella herpes, especially enterovirus 71 type rashes, which need to be carefully observed to notice that the walls of the blister are very thin, most of which are not itchy and do not crust. 

Severe cases can be complicated by encephalitis, meningitis, pulmonary edema, myocarditis, or paralysis similar to polio 2 to 5 days after onset. Its incubation period is 3-8 days. 
There is currently no effective treatment for this disease, but the following measures can be taken to relieve it:
(1) Taking antiviral drugs such as ribavirin and others.
(2) Keep local cleanliness and avoid secondary infection of bacteria.
(3) Due to erosion of the oral cavity, common diseases of preschool children and prevention of eating difficulties, you can give easy-to-digest liquid food and rinse your mouth after meals.
4) Topical can be coated with chlortetracycline cod liver oil to reduce pain and promote early healing of the eroded face.
(5) B vitamins can be taken orally, such as vitamin B2.
(6) If there is fever, you can use some traditional Chinese medicine for clearing heat and detoxifying.

The symptoms of most infected people are mild. Generally, they can heal on their own in 1-2 weeks without leaving sequelae, but it is not a lifelong immunity, that is, they can also become infected in the future. 

In terms of prevention, it should be noted that during the summer when the disease is epidemic, take as few children as possible to public places, and educate the baby to develop good hygiene habits on weekdays, and wash hands before and after meals: regularly disinfect toys and tableware.

Early detection, early treatment and early isolation. If the disease is prevalent in a nursery or kindergarten, the child should be isolated from healthy children first, and the toys should be disinfected with disinfectant: healthy children can be prevented by oral administration of Banlangen granules.

Enterovirus Epidemic and Infection

Epidemic and infection

Spring and summer are their peak season. Enteroviruses usually spread in spring, summer, and early autumn. Enterovirus is a virus that causes herpes angina and hand-foot-mouth disease. 

After the baby is infected, there are no obvious symptoms at first, but he may suddenly develop high fever, sore throat, anorexia, or cough, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea and other symptoms. 
Small blisters or sores appear in the throat, soft palate, oral mucosa, or tongue ulcer.

The above symptoms will last for 3 to 7 days, and the baby is prone to irritability, crying, and loss of appetite. 
The symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease are about the same as those of angina, except that rashes or blisters appear near the palms, soles, knees and buttocks.

In addition, enteroviruses can cause pathological changes in many organs, causing minor complications such as bronchopneumonia, myositis, peritonitis, hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, and aseptic meningitis. 

Very few babies will have more serious complications, such as encephalitis, brainstem, and myelitis, which affect respiratory central motor nerves and cause respiratory failure and limb weakness, and may also cause myocarditis, leading to heart failure. 

Infections can last for months

Enteroviruses are highly contagious. In addition, enteroviruses have a long infectious period. 
They can survive for several weeks in the upper respiratory tract and months in the feces. Therefore, if there is a child in the home or a nursery, kindergarten or school infected with intestines 

After the virus, the chance of causing infection in other young children in the hospital is quite high. In addition, toys are an important medium for mutual transmission between young children. Especially stuffed toys are more likely to contaminate the saliva of young children and spread the virus among young children. 

Enteroviruses are extremely contagious, so you need to watch them for a week after they recover. 

Which are the High risk group for Enteroviruses?

The course of enterovirus is about one week. If it is a serious patient, it will take longer to recover. 

Which babies belong to the high-risk group of severe enterovirus?

  • The baby has a high fever above 39 ° C
  • After giving antipyretics or suppositories, the fever still disappeared.
  • Babies under 1 year.
The severe death rate of enterovirus can reach more than 50%, the younger the age, the more careful the enterovirus invasion, especially if the newborn is infected, the greater the risk.

Early symptoms like colds, which parents tend to ignore
Enterovirus 71 type is mostly "hand, foot and mouth disease".

Patients will have rashes in the mouth, hands and feet. Some patients will have rashes on the abdomen and buttocks, and the rashes are relatively small, just like cripples. This is the symptoms of enterovirus 71 feature. 

In addition, many patients with a broken throat are not serious. At first, they thought it was a common cold, and infants and young children did not express it. 
Also, they had no fever symptoms and were easily ignored.

Be alert and watch for signs of severe illness

Parents should pay special attention to the following early signs of infection. As long as one of them appears, they must go to a large hospital:
1. Persistent vomiting or obvious lethargy.
2. Unconsciousness and nonsense.
3. There is a similar frightening situation, and the body twitches (pump, pump but not tremble).

Parents are reminded that if infants and young children at home are diagnosed with enterovirus by a physician, they should pay attention to observe whether the patient has enteric virus infection with severe aura symptoms, such as lethargy, unconsciousness, poor vitality, weak hands and feet, muscle twitching.

If you have severe vomiting, fever, irritability, coma, stiff neck, limb paralysis, convulsions, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat and other serious symptoms of enterovirus, you must seek medical treatment immediately to receive appropriate treatment as soon as possible to avoid missing the golden time of treatment.

Enterovirus 71 infection does not necessarily lead to severe illness. Others, such as the Quesacci virus, may also cause severe illness. Once it becomes severe, it may affect the brainstem, or cause acute encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, myocarditis, etc. 
Even after recovery, there may be sequelae, which will affect the child's physical and intellectual development in the future.

Risks and Fear of Enterovirus Epidemic

What is the Treatment for Enteroviruses?

For enterovirus infection, there is currently no effective drug treatment. 
Most patients with mild disease do not need to be hospitalized. They can be cured after symptomatic treatment and care. Parents should encourage their children to drink more water and get more rest. 
Rinse your mouth with cold water to keep your child's mouth clean. 
When eating, pay attention to give cold porridge, milk, tofu, custard and so on. 
Children with higher body temperature may lower the room temperature appropriately, or use physical cooling methods such as warm water swabbing bath. 
Those with excessive body temperature may use a small amount of antipyretics.
If your child does not eat or drink, has dark urine, has no tears when crying, or suffers from dehydration of the oral mucosa, he can go to the hospital for drip rehydration. 

If parents find their child has a high fever, lethargy, severe vomiting, unconsciousness or convulsions, severe cough, or shortness of breath, they should go to the hospital immediately. 

Enterovirus Infection Disease Treatment

How can I Prevent Enteroviruses Infection?

Enterovirus is the only poliovirus that can be prevented by vaccines. 
The prevention of other enterovirus infections mainly depends on washing hands frequently.
Do not let children eat hands or bite toys. 
Do not share towels, toothbrushes, handkerchiefs and tableware with other people to avoid illness Into. 
To ensure that children have adequate sleep, encourage breastfeeding, strengthen nutrition, drink plenty of water, often participate in outdoor activities and improve children's resistance.

In collective childcare units, children's toys should be disinfected frequently, and food hygiene should be observed. 
Tableware should be boiled and disinfected.
 Keep your child's bedding and clothes clean and dry, and often dry them in the sun. 

During the epidemic, go to public places with fewer people and pay attention to indoor ventilation. Sick children should be isolated at home to avoid transmission to other children.  

Enteroviruses can survive for more than 24 hours at a temperature of 20 ° C. Therefore, any items in public places may be at risk of infection. 
Therefore, the following matters must be noted:
Whenever possible, do not bring infants and children to public places.

In the event of a child's confirmed infection, it is best to rest for a week at home to prevent transmission to other children in a nursery, kindergarten or elementary school.

Usually, children should be taught to develop a good habit of washing their hands, and indeed to wash their hands. School teachers should also strengthen children's health education.
Adults and children should always wash their hands after going home from outside, before hugging or feeding infants.

If the child has enterovirus, parents need not be too alarmed. In addition to seeing a doctor, they need to rest more, get enough nutrition, and avoid strenuous exercise. In addition, the most effective and assured method is to improve your immunity. 

Zinc supplementation is an effective method. Zinc can increase the release of thymosin from the thymus, and build a strong defense system through T cells and antibodies, thereby enhancing the body's immunity and reducing infection with various infectious diseases. 
It can effectively improve the child's immunity.
The child's constitution will have a qualitative leap, to keep infectious diseases away from the child.

Pediatric Otolaryngology

Once infected with enterovirus, there is no effective way to prevent it from becoming serious. 
Parents can only increase their alertness, observe closely, and find signs of serious illness, and immediately take their child to a large hospital for medical treatment. 
If you have early symptoms, you can also go to the hospital for related tests, including infection index, blood glucose and liver function changes, and use these data for early diagnosis.

Enteroviruses are treated the same as colds, with "supportive care" as the mainstay.
When you are confirmed to be infected with enterovirus, if only the throat has broken blisters, skin peeling, and fever, in addition to the pediatrician, you can also see the otolaryngology department and give symptoms such as spraying or pain relief. After about 3 days, the blisters will naturally heal. 

However, because pediatrics has a high sensitivity for diagnosing severe enteroviruses, in the event that severe symptoms begin to appear on the third or fourth day, the pediatrician must be assisted in diagnosis for early detection and treatment.

Author's Bio

Doctor Shawna Reason, Virologist
Dr. Shawna Reason
Name: Shawna Reason

Education: MBBS, MD

Occupation: Medical Doctor / Virologist 

Specialization: Medical Science, Micro Biology / Virology, Natural Treatment

Experience: 15 Years as a Medical Practitioner

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