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Ebola Virus Vaccine Types Treatment and Situation in Different Countries

Vaccine and Treatment of Ebola Virus and its Status in Different Countries

Ebola virus is also translated as Ebolavirus. Is a very rare virus, found in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly known as Zaire) in 1976, its existence, caused widespread concern and attention in the medical community, Ebola, hence the name. A general term used to refer to a group of several viruses belonging to the Fibriovirus family Ebola virus.
Ebola virus is a severe infectious disease virus that can cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever in humans and other primates. It causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EBHF), the most deadly viral hemorrhagic fever in the world today. The symptoms of infected persons are very similar to those of Marburg virus, which is also a family of fibroviridae, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, color change, sore body, internal bleeding, external bleeding, and fever. Mortality ranges from 50% to 90%.  The main causes of death are stroke, myocardial infarction, hypovolemic shock, or multiple organ failure.  

Ebola virus has a biosafety level of 4 (level 3 for AIDS and level 3 for SARS, the greater the level, the stricter the protection). The virus incubation period can reach 2 to 21 days, but usually only 5 to 10 days. 

The World Health Organization announced on December 23, 2016 that a vaccine developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada can effectively protect against Ebola virus.

On October 10, 2014 local time, in Monrovia, the capital of Liberia, the corpse transported the dead body infected with Ebola to cremation, and their loved ones were distressed.
In Liberia, cremated corpses do not conform to local traditional culture.

Name:    Ebola virus

Harm:    Human and other primate viral hemorrhagic fever

Propagation mode:    Body fluids, blood

Cause of Death:    Stroke, myocardial infarction, hypovolemic shock, etc.

Virus from:    "Filoviridae" family

Security Level:    level 4


    When and Where Ebola Virus was Discovered?

    Ebola Virus Discovery: "Ebola" is the name of a river in northern DRC (formerly known as Zaire). In 1976, an unknown virus visited here, crazily killing people in 55 villages along the "Ebola" River, causing hundreds of lives to become charcoal, and some families were even spared.

    The "Ebola virus" was also caused by this. Get the name. After an interval of 3 years (1979), the "Ebola" virus raged on Sudan, and the corpse swept across the land. After two "atrocities", the "Ebola" virus disappeared mysteriously for 15 years and became invisible.

    What is the Structure of Ebola virus?

    Ebola structure: Ebola virus (EBoV) belongs to the family Filaviridae, with a length of 970 nanometers, a filamentous body, a single-stranded negative-strand RNA virus, 18959 bases, and a molecular weight of 4.17 × 10⁶. There is an envelope on the outside. 

    The virus particles are about 80 nanometers in diameter and 100 nanometers (300 to 1500) nanometers in size. Viruses with strong infection ability are generally about 665 to 805 nanometers in length.

    They are branched, U-shaped, 6-shaped, or ring-shaped. Shape is more common. There is a capsule, and the surface has 8 to 10 nanometer long fibroids. 

    The pure virus particle is composed of a spiral ribonucleocapsid complex, which contains negative-strand linear RNA molecules and 4 virion structural proteins.

    The longer, odd-shaped virion-related structures can be branched or coiled, up to 10 microns long. Ebola strains from DRC, Ivory Coast and Sudan have different antigenicity and biological characteristics.

     Research on members of the genus Ebola using electron microscopy has shown that it has the linear structure of a general fibrous virus. 

    Virus particles may also appear in a "U", "6" shape, twine, ring, or branch, but laboratory purification technology may also be one of the factors that cause these shapes.
    For example, the high speed of the centrifuge may make the virus Particle deformation.

    Virus particles are generally about 80 nanometers in diameter, but can reach a length of 1400 nanometers. The average length of a typical Ebola virus particle is close to 1000 nanometers.

    The nucleocapsid protein in the center structure of the virion is composed of helically wound genomic RNA and nucleocapsid protein, as well as the protein viral proteins VP35, VP30 and L. 

    The glycoprotein contained in the virus penetrates the surface of the virus particle 10 nanometers long, and the other 10 nanometers. 
    It protrudes outward on the surface of the mantle, and this layer of mantle is derived from the host's cell membrane.

    The area between the mantle and the nucleocapsid protein is called the matrix space and is composed of the viral proteins VP40 and VP24.

    EBOV (Ebola virus ) Characteristics

    EBOV is relatively stable at normal temperature, and has moderate resistance to heat. 
    It cannot be completely inactivated at 56 degrees Celsius, and its infectivity can be destroyed by 30 minutes at 60 degrees Celsius.
    It can be completely inactivated by 2 minutes of UV irradiation.

    Sensitive to chemicals, disinfectants such as ether, sodium deoxycholate, beta-propiolactone, formalin, sodium hypochlorite can completely inactivate the virus infectivity. 
    Cobalt 60 irradiation and gamma rays can also inactivate it. EBOV can survive for several weeks in blood samples or dead bodies.

    Its infectivity remains unchanged after 5 weeks of storage at 4 degrees Celsius, and its titer drops to half at 8 weeks. -70 ° C can be stored for a long time.

    Although the natural host of EBOV has not been finalized, there are multiple evidences that wild non-human primates such as monkeys and orangutans and other animals have EBOV infection.

    Evidence 1: The epidemic in 1976, 1996, and 2002 was due to human exposure to wild orangutans that died in the wild.

    Evidence 2: monkeys exported from the Philippines detected EBOV multiple times, but no disease was found.

    Evidence 3: August 2003 Congo ( (B) Investigation by the Ministry of Health and Health showed that EBOV can be detected in wild chimpanzees and wild boars.
    Pathology. Ebola Virus Pathogenic Principle


    Pathogenic Principle

    Is the immune system an accomplice to Ebola?

    The fourth Ebola strain (Reston) can cause fatal hemorrhagic diseases in primates other than humans. 
    Very few people have been reported to be infected with the virus in the literature and are clinically asymptomatic. 
    When endemic in Sudan in 1976, the case fatality rate was 53.2%.

    In Zaire, it was as high as 88.8%. Therefore, the World Health Organization ranks it as one of the most harmful viruses to humans, namely the "fourth level virus". 

    Some patients died of infection 48 hours after being infected with Ebola virus, and they were “deadly ugly”. 
    The virus spread rapidly in the body, multiplied, attacked multiple organs, deformed and necrotic, and was gradually affected. break down.

    The patient first had internal bleeding, followed by continuous bleeding from Qiqiao, and continuously vomited the necrotic tissue of the internal organs from the mouth, and finally died due to extensive internal bleeding and brain damage. 

    The doctor or nurse or family member who takes care of the patient can become infected after coming into close contact with the patient. Sometimes the infection rate can be very high.

    For example, during the Sudan epidemic, the infection rate was 23% among those who were in contact with and sleeping with patients, and 81% who cared for patients.
    There have also been several infections and outbreaks in laboratory personnel.

    Ebola virus is transmitted mainly through patients' blood, saliva, sweat and secretions. 
    Laboratory tests are common for lymphopenia, severe platelet reduction, and elevated aminotransferase (AST> ALT), and sometimes blood amylase is also increased. 
    ELISA can be used to detect specific IgG antibodies (IgM antibodies indicate infection).

    ELISA can be used to detect antigens in blood, serum or tissue homogenates.
     IFA can be used to detect viral antigens in liver cells by monoclonal antibodies or by cell culture or guinea pigs Inoculate the virus. 
    Viruses are sometimes observed in liver sections with an electron microscope.
    Detection of antibodies with IFA often leads to miscalculations, especially when conducting serological investigations of previous infections.

    Laboratory research is very dangerous and should only be carried out in places where there are protective measures to prevent infection by workers and communities (level 4 biosafety laboratory).

    The infection incubation period is 2 to 21 days. Infected people have sudden fever, headache, sore throat, weakness, and muscle pain. Then came vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. 
    Within two weeks after the onset, the virus overflowed, causing internal and external bleeding, blood clotting, and necrotic blood to quickly spread to various organs throughout the body. 

    The patient eventually developed symptoms such as oral, nasal, and anal bleeding, and the patient could die within 24 hours.
    Of the approximately 1,500 confirmed Ebola cases, the mortality rate is as high as 88%.

    Ebola is a zoonotic virus. Despite painstaking research by the World Health Organization, no animal host capable of surviving the outbreak has been identified, and fruit bats are considered possible protohosts of the virus.
    Because of Ebola's lethality, and no vaccine has yet been proven effective, Ebola is listed as a Biosafety Level 4 virus and is also considered as one of the tools of bioterrorism.

    Although medical scientists have racked their brains and made many explorations, the true “identity” of the Ebola virus is still a mystery. No one knows where the Ebola virus lurks after each major outbreak, and no one knows where the first victim of the Ebola epidemic came from during each major outbreak. 

    The "Ebola" virus is one of the most terrifying viruses ever known to humans. Once a patient is infected with the virus, there is no vaccine or other treatment.
    In fact, he almost sentenced himself to death. In the words of a doctor, people infected with "Ebola" will "melt" in front of you. 
    The only way to stop the virus from spreading is to completely isolate infected patients.



    What are the Types of Ebola Viruses?

    Ebola virus has been identified into 4 subtypes, namely:

    1. Ebola-Zaire type (EBO-Zaire)
    2. Ebola-Sudan type (EBO-Sudan)
    3. Ebola-Leston type (EBO- R)
    4. Ebola-Côte d'Ivoire (EBO-CI)

    Different subtypes have different characteristics. EBO-Z and EBO-S are highly pathogenic and lethal to human and non-human primates. EBO-R is not pathogenic to humans and non-human primates.
    It has a lethal effect.
    EBO-CI is obviously pathogenic to humans, but it is generally not lethal, and has a high lethal rate to chimpanzees.

    On July 9, 2009, a new issue of Science magazine reported that an Ebola virus (EBO-R) called reston was identified on pigs on some farms in the Philippines. Unlike the Bora virus, so far it has not threatened people.

    What is Zaire Ebola Virus?

    Zaire Ebola has a mortality rate of up to 90%, with 88% mortality in endemic areas in 1976, 100% in 1977, 59% in 1994, 81% in 1995, 73% in 1996, It was 80% from 2001 to 2002, 90% in 2003, and an average of 83% in 2007.

    The first outbreak occurred on August 26, 1976 in a town in the north of the DRC. The first case was a 44-year-old teacher, Mabalo Lokela. At that time, his fever was diagnosed as suspected of malaria infection and he was treated with quinine injection.

    Observed at the hospital, one week later, it became uncontrollable vomiting, bloody diarrhea, headache, dizziness accompanied by dyspnea, and began to bleed from the mouth, nose, rectum and other places.
    He died on September 18, and the course of disease was only about 2 weeks.

    Soon after, more patients sought medical treatment with similar symptoms, including fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, fatigue, nausea and dizziness. These often develop into bloody diarrhea, severe vomiting and multiple bleedings.

    The initial infection may be caused by repeated use of an unsterilized syringe. Subsequent infections are mainly in the care of patients without proper safety measures. 
    Cleaning process during virus attack or traditional burial pre-operation.
    Sudanese Ebola Virus

    What is Sudanese Ebola Virus?

    The Sudanese Ebola virus was first detected in Sudanese cotton mill workers in 1976. 
    The researchers pointed out that the worker should have contacted the host of the protozoa in or near the factory, but found nothing after detecting animals and insects near the factory, and the protohost is still unknown. 

    The second case was a nightclub leader who lived in Sudan. The local hospital exhausted all the methods to treat him but it was ineffective, and eventually he was declared dead. Medical staff did not have appropriate protective measures during the treatment, which led to a virus outbreak in the hospital.

    The most recent outbreak occurred in May 2004. In May 2004, 20 cases were reported in Yambio County, Sudan, and 5 people died.

    The case was confirmed by the CDC a few days later as Sudanese Ebola, and neighboring countries such as Uganda and Congo have increased border guards to control the outbreak.

    The average mortality rate for Sudan's Ebola was 53% in 1976, 68% in 1979, and 53% between 2000 and 2001, with an average mortality rate of 53.76%.

    What is Reston Type Ebola virus?

    It was first discovered in a group of crab-eating monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) imported from the Philippines to Reston, Virginia, USA in November 1989. This virus has a high lethality to monkeys, but is not fatal to humans.

    In February 1990, Reston's Ebola virus broke out again in Reston, Texas, and the Philippines. 
    More cases were found in Tuscany and Texas in 1992 and 1996.
    All infected monkeys exhibited symptoms similar to simian hemorrhagic fever. 
    No humans were infected during these two outbreaks.

    What is Côte D'Ivoire Ebola Virus?

    The Côte D'Ivoire Ebola virus was first discovered in the Taï National Park in Côte D'Ivoire
    On November 1, 1994, the bodies of two chimpanzees were found in the forest.

    The inspectors found that the blood in the heart was brown and liquefied (usually the blood in the corpse should be completely coagulated after more than ten hours of death), the internal organs showed no obvious traces, and the lungs were filled with blood. 

    Organizations taken from chimpanzees have shown that the virus is very similar to Sudan's Ebola and Zaire's Ebola outbreak in 1976.

    After 1994, more dead chimpanzees were discovered, and scientists tested the virus in many ways. 
    The source of the infection is thought to be a colobus monkey that was preyed on by a chimpanzee and had the virus.

    One of the scientists who performed the autopsy was infected with the virus. 
    She developed symptoms similar to dengue fever and was sent to Switzerland for treatment a week later. 
    She was discharged from the hospital two weeks later and recovered completely in the sixth week after the infection.

    Variant

    Dr Peter, an American scientist at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Allergies, believes that this may be an infection caused by mutations in Ebola virus that have become easier to spread than before.

    What is the Way for spreading of Ebola Virus?

    Sensitive cell

    Green monkey kidney cells (Vero), hamster kidney cells (BHK), and human embryo lung fibroblasts can be used to culture EBoV.
    Seven hours after the virus infected the cells, viral RNA was detected in the culture, peaked at 18 hours, and cytopathic changes were seen after 48 hours. 
    After 7 to 8 days, the cells became round and shrunk, and the virus inclusion bodies were seen after staining.

    What is the Method of Transmission of Ebola Virus?

    How Ebola virus transmits: Various non-human primates are generally susceptible and infection can be caused by the intestinal, parenteral or intranasal route. 
    High fever occurs 2 to 5 days after infection and death occurs 6 to 9 days.

    The blood contained the virus 1 to 4 days after the onset until death. Guinea pigs, hamsters and suckling rats are more sensitive.
    Intraperitoneal, intravenous, intradermal or intranasal route can cause infection. 

    Adult mice and chicken embryos are not sensitive.
    The population is generally susceptible regardless of age and gender.

    High-risk groups include patients with Ebola hemorrhagic fever, people in close contact with infected animals such as medical staff, inspectors, and staff at the Ebola epidemic site.

    Experts found in research that the "Ebola" virus has some heat resistance, but it will be killed in 60 minutes at 60 degrees Celsius. The virus mainly exists in the body fluid and blood of the patient.

    Therefore, the syringes, needles, various puncture needles, cannulas, etc. used by the patient should be thoroughly disinfected.

    The most reliable is to use high-pressure steam disinfection. Ebola virus may also be transmitted through the air. 

    The experimenter exposed the head of the rhesus monkey to the outside of the cage and let it inhale aerosols containing virus with a diameter of about 1 micron.

    The sera of 6 staff members who were in close contact with sick monkeys every day were found to be positive for the virus.
    Five of them had no trauma and had no history of injections, so they thought they could be transmitted by droplets.

    The virus can be transmitted through direct contact with the patient's body fluids or contact with the patient's skin and mucous membranes. 
    The virus incubation period can reach 2 to 21 days, but usually only 5 to 10 days.

    Could Ebola Virus Transmit Through Air?

    Although airborne infections among monkeys have been confirmed in the laboratory, it does not prove that humans can transmit the virus through the air. 

    Nurse Mainca is a possible case of airborne infection, and researchers are not sure how she was exposed to the virus. 

    Most of the Ebola virus epidemic is due to the environment of the hospital, poor public health, needles that have been discarded everywhere, and the lack of negative pressure wards all pose great threats to medical staff.
    Because of better equipment and hygiene, it is almost impossible for a large-scale epidemic of Ebola virus in modern hospitals.

    In the early stages of the disease, Ebola virus may not be highly contagious. Patients exposed during this period may not even be infected.
    As the disease progresses, body fluids discharged by patients from diarrhea, vomiting and bleeding will be highly biologically dangerous. 

    Due to lack of proper medical equipment and sanitation training, large-scale epidemics often occur in poor areas without modern hospitals and trained medical staff.
    Many of the areas where the source of infection exists have exactly these characteristics.
    In this environment, the only measures to control the disease are: Prohibit the sharing of needles, and do not reuse needles under strict disinfection. Isolate the patient.

    In any case, follow strict procedures, use disposable masks, gloves, Goggles and protective clothing. 
    All health care workers and visiting workers should strictly implement these measures.

    The World Health Organization issued a communiqué on October 6, 2014 saying that Ebola virus does not spread through the air and there is no evidence that the virus has mutated.

    So some claims that the Ebola virus might mutate into airborne form are unfounded speculation. 
    WHO emphasizes that studies have shown that all previous Ebola cases were infected by direct contact with patients who developed symptoms. 

    The transmission of Ebola virus is in direct close contact with the patient's body fluids. 
    The patients' blood, feces, and vomitus are the most infectious.

    The virus can also be found in the patient's milk, urine, and semen. Risk of infection, but intact live virus has never been detected in a patient's sweat sample.

    What is Expert's point on Ebolavirus?

    On October 3, 2014, the prevailing opinion was that Ebola was transmitted by contact. 
    However, several medical experts recently said that Ebola virus may mutate to spread through breathing. 

    Two more experts believe that the current form of Ebola virus can already be transmitted through aerosols.
    If this is the case, if Ebola cannot be quickly controlled, it may spread to the world.

    The prevailing perception is that the Ebola virus is transmitted mainly through contact, rather than through the air. Only patients who have Ebola symptoms are contagious.

    The New York Times reported that Michael T. Osterholm, director of the University of Minnesota's Center for Infectious Diseases, said that Ebola is notorious for replicating, and that viruses entering human A may be genetically different from human B.

    The current rate of Ebola virus transmission is unprecedented. The amount of human-to-human transmission in the past four months is likely to exceed the total of the past 500-1000 years.

    Osterholm said that if certain viruses mutate, they may progress to respiratory transmission. If that is the case, the Ebola virus will spread quickly worldwide.

    Government officials dare not talk about this because they do not want to be accused of being the one shouting fire in a crowded theater. 

    Osterholm believes that this possibility needs to be pointed out and people need to be prepared.

    In 2012, several Canadian researchers confirmed that the Zaire Ebola Zaire virus can be transmitted from pigs to monkeys through the respiratory tract, and that the lungs of these two animals are similar to humans.

    The Zaire Ebola virus is a virus that is spreading in West Africa. Richard Preston's book "The hot zone" documents the 1989 outbreak of Reston's Ebola virus, which spread among monkeys through breathing. All monkeys were euthanized before the epidemic came to an end.

    According to Guardian, the chairman of the United Nations Ebola emergency team said that if the current epidemic could not be controlled quickly and effectively, there could be such a horror-the Ebola virus has developed into airborne transmission.

    Two national-level infectious disease experts at UIC University believe that the current form of Ebola virus can already be transmitted through aerosols.

    There is scientific and epidemiological evidence that Ebola virus may be transmitted through aerosol particles, suggesting that medical workers should wear respiratory masks rather than masks.

    Aerosol, also called aerosol, aerosol, refers to a dispersion system in which solid or liquid particles are stably suspended in a gaseous medium.
    The general size is between 0.01 and 10 microns, which can be divided into two types:
    • Natural
    • Human

    Local distribution of Ebola Virus or its Outbreak countries

    Ebola haemorrhagic fever has so far been mainly endemic, confined to tropical rain forests in Central Africa and tropical savanna in southeast Africa.
    But this has expanded from the beginning of Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic, Libya, Gabon, Nigeria , Kenya, Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Ethiopia and South Africa. 

    There are occasional cases reported outside Africa, all of which are imported or laboratory accidental infections, and no Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic has been found.
    Ebola virus is only epidemic intermittently in individual countries and regions, and has certain limitations in time and space.

    Infections in endemic areas and outbreaks: So far, imported cases have been reported in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Switzerland, all of which travel in the endemic area, participate in the diagnosis and treatment of patients, or participate in surveys and researchers.

    What is the Inspection Method of Eboa Virus?

    Ebolavirus Tests: Ebola virus is a highly dangerous pathogen, and the virus must be isolated and identified in specialized laboratory facilities.
    In African endemic areas, diagnosis is mainly performed by detecting specific IgM and IgG antibodies to Ebola virus, and examining viral antigens or nucleic acids.

    How to Examine Ebola Virus Specific Antibodies?

    Examination of virus-specific antibodies: The virus-specific IgM antibodies in the patient's blood appeared 2 to 9 days after the onset and persisted until 1 to 6 months after the onset.
    The IgG antibodies appeared 6 to 18 days after the onset and persisted to more than 2 years after the onset. 

    The carboxy-terminal polypeptide of viral core protein prepared by genetic engineering method is used as an antigen, and the ELISA method for detecting IgG antibodies against Ebola virus has high specificity and sensitivity.

    However, for patients with low specific antibody titers in some acute phases, the detection of viral antigens or nucleic acids should be performed at the same time.

    Examination of virus-specific antigens and nucleic acids

    It has been confirmed that the consistency of the detection of Ebola virus antigen and the detection of viral nucleic acid is almost 100%, and the sensitivity is very high.

    In addition, when the specimen is irradiated with rays and the virus is inactivated, the safety of the experiment is increased, and the experimental results are not significantly affected.

    Testing Equipment for Ebolavirus

    Xinhuanet, Rome, December 12, 2014. The Italian National Institute of Infectious Diseases issued a statement recently stating that it has developed a portable device for rapid detection of Ebola virus, which can detect the presence of Ebola in blood samples within 75 minutes. virus.

    This device was developed by the institute in cooperation with Italian biotechnology company Clonit and French company STMicroelectronics Co., Ltd., using molecular biology technology for real-time polymerase chain reaction.
    This kind of equipment has extremely high sensitivity.
    Even a small amount of human blood can be detected by multiple dilutions of the virus, and it can identify the virus early, which significantly reduces the risk of infection.

    Nucleic acid detection reagent

    On April 27, 2015, WHO officially announced the approval of the Ebola virus nucleic acid detection kit developed and manufactured by Zhijiang for inclusion in its official procurement list.

    At the same time, this product was used as one of the detection methods for Ebola virus. This is Recommended worldwide.

    In just one year, “Made in Shanghai” Ebola testing products have gained international popularity. The seemingly easy harvest, but it is the "inadvertently inserting willows" for 5 years.

    In 2010, by chance, an African customer asked Zhijiang to develop an Ebola test reagent. 
    Faced with the "loss of money orders" that businessmen can count on, Shao Junbin thought about innovation and service:
    There are few orders and a small market, and it does not make money.
    However, since the company promises to provide value-added services to customers, we should invest R & D. 

    Thanks to the bioinformatics team that was set up at the beginning of the company's establishment, the company began to develop Ebola detection kits since 2010, and it has been successfully developed within 5 months.

    The kit received EU CE certification in February 2014, becoming the world's first Ebola virus nucleic acid detection product to receive EU CE certification.
    After the Ebola outbreak in Africa, the product was used in national reference laboratories such as Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria, etc. for the first time, and the effect was good. 

    At present, reagents are mainly sold to Nigeria, Guinea, Cameroon, Kenya, the United States, India and other countries.
    There are 35 domestic procurement units for reserves.
    The company can produce 50,000 reagents in 3 days.

    Vaccine Development for Ebola Virus

    Precaution against Ebola virus (including Vaccination)


    Vaccine Development for Ebolavirus

    In February 2006, Gary Nabel, director of the National Institutes of Health, said

    The vaccine against the deadly Ebola virus has passed initial human safety tests, and there are promising signs that the vaccine will protect humans from the disease.

    Twenty-one people have received the experimental vaccine tested early. However, Nabel cautioned that more research is needed to confirm the success of the vaccine.

    Nabel and colleagues at the research center developed a vaccine from DNA containing three Ebola proteins. They said the vaccine would make monkeys immune to Ebola. 
    The vaccine not only suppresses the spread of the disease, but it also protects doctors, nurses and animal breeders before they occur. 

    On August 9, 2014, China announced that it had mastered the Ebola antibody gene and had the ability to develop diagnostic reagents for timely detection of Ebola virus, which surprised the world.

    At the same time, senior officials of the World Health Organization have continuously reminded countries to pay attention to China's rich experience in dealing with the epidemic. 

    On September 8, 2014, researchers are currently developing a test vaccine against Ebola virus and plan to begin testing on healthy volunteers in September.
    Testing will begin once the ethical application is approved. If the vaccine works well, the study will extend to the Gambia and Mali in West Africa. 

    Researchers hope the vaccine will help people in these countries prevent the virus, but first test the vaccine in uninfected people.
    The Ebola virus has proven to be very difficult to control, and currently only the efficacy of vaccines and vaccines can be evaluated. 

    The vaccine contains a protein from Ebola virus that triggers an immune system response once it enters the body.
    The first phase of the study will be piloted on 60 healthy volunteers. If the vaccine proves to be safe and effective, it will be used on 80 volunteers in the Gambia and Mali. 
    By 2015, the vaccine has the potential to be more widely used in countries where these viruses are outbreaks.

    On September 24, 2014, the World Health Organization stated that a large-scale vaccine may be available by the end of the year to control the spread of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa.
    Although scientists are testing two vaccines, no approved vaccine is currently available.
    According to the plan, the number of vaccines produced by the end of the year will have some impact on the control of the epidemic.
    It is believed that the current Ebola outbreak has infected more than 5,800 people in five West African countries. 

    In December 2014, the recombinant Ebola vaccine independently developed by the Chen Wei team of the Institute of Biological Engineering of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences passed joint national and military review, obtained clinical approvals, and began human trials this month. 

    Ebolavirus Vaccine Developed successfully

    The World Health Organization announced on December 23, 2016 that a vaccine developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada can effectively protect against Ebola virus.
    The clinical trial is led by WHO, with participation from agencies such as the Guinea Ministry of Health.
    Related research reports have been published in a new issue of the British medical journal The Lancet.

    The trial began last year in Guinea, when new Ebola haemorrhagic fever cases continued to occur in the region. 
    Nearly 12,000 people who had direct or indirect exposure to Ebola hemorrhagic fever participated in the trial.

    The report said that the researchers first selected adults over the age of 18 to conduct the trials, none of whom were pregnant, nursing or seriously ill. 
    2,119 people were vaccinated immediately, and 2041 people were postponed by 21 days. 
    The results showed that people who were vaccinated immediately were effectively protected from Ebola hemorrhagic fever. But 16 of those who delayed their vaccination by 21 days developed Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    After the results of the above tests confirmed the effectiveness, the researchers extended the coverage to children over 6 years old, and a total of 1,677 people were vaccinated immediately, including 194 children. 
    The results showed that they were also effectively protected from Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    Of the 5,837 people who were vaccinated, about half had mild side effects such as headache, fatigue, and muscle soreness, and some had serious side effects, but their bodies recovered within a few days without long-term effects.
    Of the people who have never been vaccinated, seven have developed Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    Merck, the company that produces the vaccine, has obtained some qualifications in the United States and the European Union, which will help relevant regulatory agencies expedite the review of this new vaccine and put it into use as soon as possible.

    The author of the study, WHO Assistant Director-General, Mary Poller Gini, said that although the results came a little late, many people have lost their lives in the West Africa Ebola epidemic, but this will at least guarantee the next Ethiopia When the Bola epidemic strikes, people are helpless. 
    Precautions Against Ebola Virus

    What Precautions do I Need Precautions against Ebola Virus?


    Control Spread

    To control the spread of "Ebola", we must first pay close attention to the dynamics of the world's Ebola virus epidemic, strengthen border quarantine, and suspend imports of monkeys.
    The main restriction is on monkeys from the affected areas. So far, no other than primates have been found. Animals are hosts of Ebola virus. 

    Suspicious patients with bleeding symptoms should be observed in isolation.
    Once the diagnosis is confirmed, it should be reported to the health department in a timely manner, and the strictest isolation for the patient is used, that is, an isolation device with an air filtering device is used. 

    Medical personnel and laboratory personnel wear isolation suits, and space suits may be used for inspection operations when possible to prevent accidents. Close contact with patients should also be observed.

    Adjuvant Therapy

    Treatment is first aided, including minimizing virus invasion, balancing electrolytes, repairing lost platelets to prevent bleeding, maintaining blood oxygen levels, and treating complications.

    Excluding individual cases, the serum of Ebola's recoveries does not play a role in treating the disease.

    Interferon is also ineffective against Ebola. In monkey tests, coagulation interferon appears to play a role, allowing 33% of infected monkeys that were originally 100% mortal to survive. USAMRIID scientists claim that three of the four Ebola-infected macaques recovered. 

    There are no specific treatments for Ebola virus disease.
    Some antivirals such as interferon and ribavirin are not effective.
    They are mainly supportive and symptomatic treatments, including attention to water and electrolyte balance, and control of bleeding; dialysis treatment for renal failure, etc. 

    The treatment of patients with Ebola virus disease with plasma from convalescent patients is controversial.

    Ostrich Egg Antibody

    On November 23, 2014, Kyoto Prefectural University of Japan announced that its research team has developed a technology for mass production of antibodies against Ebola virus using ostrich eggs, and some airports plan to start using sprays containing this antibody in mid-December.

    Ostrich has strong immunity, which is due to its strong antibody-producing ability. Kyoto Prefectural University professor Takamoto Yasuhiro and his team have been studying the immunity of ostriches and developed a technology that uses ostrich eggs to extract antibodies in large quantities.

    In the new study, the research team first developed recombinant Ebola protein and injected it into the ostrich as an antigen.

    The ostrich thus generates antibodies and passes them to the eggs it produces. After removing the yolk portion of the ostrich eggs, the antibodies can be purified.

    The research team currently plans to use the antibody to make an infection-preventing spray that can be sprayed on hands, masks and door handles.

    What is the Treatment of Ebola Virus?

    Treatment method: Research by British scientists has shown that you should not eat foods that contain protein, but a method has been spread in Côte d'Ivoire to boil bovine urine.

    The only way to fight it today is to inject an NPC1 blocker. Ebola virus needs to enter the nucleus through NPC1 to replicate itself.
    The NPC1 protein transports cholesterol between cells.

    Even if the blocker blocks the transport route of cholesterol and causes Nieman Pick's disease, but Tolerable.
    Most outbreaks are short-lived. NPC1 blockers can also fight Marburg virus.

    Treating Ebola Virus Infection

    Ebola Ingestion of large amounts of salt water are Rumors

    The Geneva-based World Health Organization issued a statement on the 15th stating that certain products and practices can prevent or cure Ebola virus, and that a fully tested and approved Ebola vaccine may not appear before 2015.

    The WHO emphasizes that although some promising products are under development, decades of scientific research have not found any curative or protective agents that are safe and effective for the human body.

    The statement said that in order to save the lives of Ebola patients as much as possible, the WHO has approved the use of experimental drugs.
    All parties are accelerating the production of experimental drugs, but the supply of such drugs is still very limited, and the public must recognize that experimental drugs have not been tested in humans and have not been approved by regulatory agencies.

    Some products or methods that claim to prevent or cure Ebola virus are completely rejected by WHO and are called "blind therapies". For example, rumors that "a large amount of saline could prevent Ebola virus" have killed at least two Nigerians.  

    What are the National initiatives against Ebola Virus?

     The National Initiatives taken against Ebola Virus by different nations are as follows:

    a. United States

    The U.S. Senate passed the Bio Shield Program bill on May 19, 2004.
    Approved a $ 5.6 billion allocation to prevent biological or chemical weapons attacks in the United States. Biochemical attacks covered by the bill include smallpox, anthrax, botulinum toxin, plague and Ebola virus. 

    The bill, called the "BioShield Plan," provides that within the next decade, the United States will encourage pharmaceutical companies to research and develop responses to bioterrorist activities, expe the approval process for detoxification drugs, and allow the government to provide the public in emergency situations.

    Provide certain treatments that are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 

    The United States had originally sent 3,000 soldiers to Liberia to help fight the Ebola epidemic, but it has now decided to increase it to 4,000. US Secretary of Defense Hagel has approved the plan, and the United States will send a total of no more than 4,000 soldiers to Liberia in batches. 

    Kirby emphasized that these people sent by the United States will provide logistical and engineering technical support, but they are not medical staff, so they will not be sent to high-risk areas. 

    Currently, about 200 US soldiers have been deployed in Liberia to participate in the construction of a headquarters base for training medical staff and providing medical services. 

    As two nurses became infected while taking care of Ebola patients, the U.S. health department upgraded Ebola protection standards on the 20th.
    The most important point is that the skin should not be exposed after wearing protective clothing and goggles are no longer recommended. 

    The Nebraska Medical Center of the United States announced on October 21, 2014 that an Ebola patient received from West Africa has recovered after more than two weeks of treatment at the hospital and will be discharged on the 22nd. So far, the five Ebola patients received by the United States from West Africa have all defeated the virus. 

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced on the 22nd that all passengers from the Ebola-affected area in West Africa will be closely monitored for 21 days after arriving in the United States.
    During this period, passengers must report their temperature and other conditions to the U.S. health department to determine whether they have Symptoms of Ebola infection.
    This rule also applies to U.S. citizens who return to the country from a West Africa-affected area.

    The monitoring program will be implemented on October 27th in the six eastern US states where New Zealand, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, New Jersey and Georgia are the main destinations for West African visitors.
    Eventually, all states in the United States will monitor passengers from West Africa-affected areas. 

    On October 27, 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced new guidelines for people who may be infected with Ebola, but the governors of many states and military commanders have decided to take stricter measures.

    This new guideline states that if you have ever been in contact with body fluids of Ebola patients, such as touching them without wearing protective gear, or being injured by a contaminated needle, then even if there are no symptoms, they are considered contagious and should be kept away from places of commercial transportation and public gatherings. 

    New York doctor Craig Spencer, who was diagnosed with Ebola on November 11, 2014, will be discharged from a hospital in Manhattan.
    Since being diagnosed on October 23, Spencer has been in isolation at Bellevue Hospital Center in New York.

    Spencer, a volunteer for the humanitarian relief organization Doctors Without Borders, helped treat Ebola patients in Guinea and returned to the United States in mid-October. He is the first Ebola patient in New York City and the fourth patient in the United States to be diagnosed with Ebola. 
    After testing, Dr. Spencer was free of Ebola virus. It is unclear whether Dr. Spencer will return to his home in Hamilton Heights after his discharge. His fiancee, Morgan Dixon, is being quarantined here, and the quarantine period ends this weekend.

    On November 10, 2014, Google launched a promotional campaign called “giving”. The campaign aims to raise funds to fight the Ebola virus-Google said it will add an additional $ 2 to every $ 1 donated by users.

    According to Google CEO Page, Google has donated $ 10 million to a number of non-profit organizations including InSTEDD, International Rescue Committee, Medicins Sans Frontieres, NetHope, Partners in Health, Save the Children, and U.S. Fund for UNICEF. 
    In addition, the Page Family Foundation has donated an additional $ 15 million to help agencies fight the Ebola virus.

    b. Japan

    A Japanese research team synthesized a virus that is very similar in appearance and structure to Ebola, but much less toxic. The virus can be used to study the mechanism of Ebola virus infection and toxicity, help develop Ebola vaccines and prevent bioterrorism. 

    The Ebola-like virus was synthesized by a research team led by Professor Yoichi Kawaoka of the University of Tokyo. 
    Except for genetic differences, the virus's appearance, structural form, and proteins are the same as true Ebola viruses, and they can infect human cells. 
    Professor Kagawa has successfully synthesized the true Ebola virus.

    Ebola virus contains a total of seven proteins, which are constructed by enclosing genes and protein complexes in a thin tubular shell. Electron microscopy showed that the Ebola-like virus looks very similar to the real Ebola virus. 
    Ebola-like viruses are much less toxic, making research and testing more convenient.

    On November 7, 2014, Japan's Chief Cabinet Secretary Takayuki Wei announced that Japan would provide up to 100 million U.S. dollars in aid in response to Ebola, a growing infectious disease in West Africa. 

    Xinhua News Agency, Tokyo, October 19, 2018. A new Japanese study has clarified the basic structure of Ebola virus and is expected to be used to develop drugs for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. 
    Related research results have been published in the online ion of the British "Nature" magazine.

    c. United Kingdom

    On September 17, 2014, a vaccine trial against Ebola virus has begun in Oxford, England, and the first 60 healthy volunteers will receive the vaccine.
    Under normal circumstances, a new vaccine requires years of human trials to be approved for use, but based on the severity of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the development of this experimental vaccine is advancing at an "amazing speed".

    The vaccine being tested was jointly developed by British pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline and the National Institutes of Health. The trial was funded by the Wellcome Trust, the UK Medical Research Council and the UK Agency for International Development.

    d. China

    On September 18, 2014, President Xi Jinping announced in New Delhi, India that the Chinese government will once again provide assistance to the international community in fighting the Ebola epidemic.
    Xi Jinping pointed out that the current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is intensifying and spreading, posing severe challenges to the international community including China and India. 

    In order to support Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea and other countries to fight the Ebola epidemic, help the countries surrounding the epidemic area to strengthen their epidemic prevention capacity, and support relevant international and regional organizations to continue to play a leading and coordinating role in the fight against epidemics, the Chinese government has decided to provide two.

    On the basis of the aid, the three countries were again provided with 200 million yuan in emergency cash, food and material assistance, and the World Health Organization and the African Union each provided US $ 2 million in cash assistance.

    In response to the ongoing epidemic of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, China’s General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine has continued to adopt a series of strict measures based on its preliminary work to build three lines of defense overseas, on the way, and at ports, to play the role of port firewalls, and to prevent the spread of Ebola Into.

    Overseas defense line

    Liberia, Guinea, Sierra Leone and other West African epidemic-prone countries are required to continue to step up quarantine to prevent people with symptoms such as fever and Ebola hemorrhagic fever from going to China.

    On the way

    Continue to require relevant international airlines to strengthen publicity on key flights, and implement measures such as reporting, initial treatment, and timely notification of first ports of entry for those with symptoms. 

    In the early stage, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China specially produced Chinese and English versions of the port Ebola hemorrhagic fever prevention and control propaganda film, and required relevant international airlines to roll on the flights to China.

    Port defense

    Continue to strengthen boarding quarantine, temperature screening, medical inspections, and transfer of patients with symptoms.

    In response to the new situation of imported cases in the United States and Spain and causing local cases, learning from the practices of other countries, further adhering to the original effective prevention and control measures, and recently focusing on three tasks: 

    1.  The emphasis on the quarantine process Traceability.
    2.  The second is to strengthen the screening and information reporting of people who have been to the endemic area of ​​Ebola hemorrhagic fever within 21 days
    3.  To emphasize training and exercises in personal protection.


    At a press conference held on October 29, 2014, Li Jing, director of the AQSIQ's Information Office, disclosed that from August 4 to October 28, a total of 26,235 people from the epidemic area were investigated at the port, and fever and other symptoms were found.
    88 people, no confirmed cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, 33 cases of malaria, dengue fever, etc. were accumulated.

    1,437 flights, 50 sub-ships, 174 trains, 19,220 TEUs, 6,126 cargoes, 16 animal products Inspection and quarantine. At present, various prevention and control work is still in order.

    On March 5, 2015, Yaduro, a patient with Ebola in Monrovia, Liberia, recovered and was discharged. 
    She is the last cured Ebola patient in China's Ebola Treatment Center and the last confirmed case in 17 Ebola treatment centers across Liberia.

    e. Sierra Leone

    Since September 19, 2014, Sierra Leone, a West African country, has imposed a three-day martial law to prevent the spread of the deadly virus Ebola.
    September 22, 2014. According to foreign media reports, Sierra Leonean government officials in West African countries said that after three days of "closed accounts" across the country, medical staff have detected dozens of new cases of Ebola virus infection, but they have not been checked. Everyone across the country may therefore extend the blockade. 

    On August 31, 2015, after Sierra Leone had begun a 42-day countdown to the end of the Ebola outbreak and maintained 6 days of zero cases, the country found one newly deceased person to be confirmed by Ebola.

    f. North Korea

    To prevent the entry of Ebola virus, North Korea will close the border on October 24, 2014, and prohibit foreign tourists from entering. It is not clear when the ban will be lifted.

    The Ebola epidemic has gradually spread from West Africa to Asia, Europe, the Americas, and other parts of the world.

    Many countries have issued “attention” warnings for outbound tourism and taken quarantine measures against suspected Ebola people.

    North Korea's Central Television also broadcast related content on the same day, reminding residents to be vigilant against the Ebola virus.

    There are many disputes over whether restricting the entry of tourists from West Africa will help curb the spread of Ebola.

    The Secretary-General of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Haji Amadou West said on the 22nd that travel restrictions such as border closures. 
    It is meaningless and cannot effectively contain the Ebola epidemic.

    g. South Korea

    South Korea’s Ministry of Defense stated on October 30, 2014 that it has decided to participate in the international community’s fight against Ebola virus and will send a medical team consisting of military doctors and officer nurses to the Ebola epidemic area to help control the epidemic.

    The Korean medical team may go to one of Liberia and Sierra Leone from the end of November to the beginning of December.
    The dispatch period may be two months.
    The Korean medical team will go to the Ebola-affected area in three batches.
    Each batch will dispatch two military doctors and three officer nurses, but the plan has not yet been finalized.

    The dispatch period of each batch may reach 7-9 weeks. Medical staff will receive 1-2 weeks of education in the local area, and then carry out medical activities for 3-4 weeks. At the end of all missions, they will be quarantined for 21 days for Ebola virus testing and rest.

    The Ministry of National Defense said that medical personnel will join local medical teams selected by the Ministry of Health and Welfare to conduct medical activities in the local area and receive prior education in South Korea and affected areas.

    The Ministry of Defence is negotiating with relevant departments on security measures such as the transfer, treatment of medical personnel infected with Ebola virus, and quarantine after the end of the mission.

    h. Germany

    On November 11, 2014, the WHO provided a batch of vaccines to Germany, ready to be tested on 30 people within six months. It is reported that the vaccine has completed animal tests.

    German doctors assured that participants would not be infected with Ebola by undergoing the experiment.
    In addition, German doctors said that if the test is successful, the vaccine will be used in the fall of 2015.

    i. Philippines

    After returning from Liberia, West Africa, on November 12, 2014, more than 100 Philippine peacekeepers will be placed on an island to live in isolation while undergoing Ebola testing to dispel public doubts.

    The Chief of Staff of the Philippine Armed Forces, Catapan, held a press conference at the main army base in Manila on the 10th, saying that more than 100 peacekeepers will be placed at the mouth of Manila Bay for 21 days of isolation. But he also stressed that these peacekeepers were not at risk of contracting the Ebola virus.

    What is the Outbreak Impact of Ebola virus?

    Outbreak in Zaire in January 1995 and in Gabon since February 1996: 316 cases occurred in Kikwit city, 245 cases died, 78% fatality rate; in Ogowei, Gabon Ogooue Ivindo had 46 cases of morbidity and 31 deaths with a mortality rate of 67.4%. 

    According to the latest figures released by the World Health Organization, 1,100 people worldwide have been infected with the virus, and 793 of them have lost their lives.
    The medical community has not found a vaccine to prevent Ebola and its source, nor has it found an effective treatment. 

    A new round of Ebola outbreaks from Guinea, a West African country, is accelerating.
    This round of the outbreak has been reported in Guinea since February 2014, and 1,323 confirmed or suspected cases have been reported, including 729 deaths.

     Some international medical organizations have pointed out that this round of the epidemic is facing a further "out of control" situation.

    Guinea has 460 confirmed or suspected cases, of which 339 have been killed. Neighbouring Liberia has 329 confirmed or suspected cases with 156 deaths, and Sierra Leone has reported 533 confirmed or suspected cases with 233 deaths.
    A suspected case is also reported for the first time in Nigeria and has died.

    Some of the new cases are medical staff involved in treating patients. In Sierra Leone, a chief doctor responsible for treating people infected with Ebola was found to be infected with the virus.
    In response to the severity of the outbreak, a US rescue agency announced the withdrawal of volunteers from the three West African countries. 

    The international medical rescue organization MSF said that because of the lack of an effective "overall strategy", the Ebola epidemic is gradually "out of control" and is facing an unprecedented situation.

    According to the International Civil Aviation Organization of the United Nations, airlines and health authorities are considering adjusting passenger screening rules and procedures, and may introduce measures to accelerate the speed of air rescue services for people infected with Ebola virus. 

    On July 29, 2014, ASKY Airlines, which operates pan-African air operations, announced that in order to prevent the spread of the Ebola virus, the carrier suspended all flights to and from Liberia and Sierra Leone. 

    On August 8, 2014, the World Health Organization issued a statement announcing the Ebola outbreak as an international public health emergency that will pose risks to other countries and require an "unconventional" response.
    All countries reporting the Ebola outbreak Should declare a state of emergency. The WHO and the affected countries have launched an intensive response plan totaling $ 100 million for this. 

    The outside world, such as “MSF”, expressed different views on the response made by the WHO, saying that the epidemic is very critical and more human and material resources are needed to respond.

    The Chinese government provided emergency material assistance to the three West African countries. 
    The relevant crew members have completed epidemic prevention training and protection preparations. 
    More than 80 tons of medical supplies are expected to arrive in the three West African countries in the evening on August 11, 2014. 

    On the afternoon of August 11, 2014, the Chinese government provided emergency humanitarian aid to Sierra Leone to fight the Ebola outbreak at the Longji International Airport in Freetown, Sierra Leone. 

    As of August 26, 2014, Ebola had killed 1,427 people in Sierra Leone, Libya and Guinea. This includes more than 100 medical staff who were infected and died while treating patients with Ebola infection. 

    As of August 28, 2014, five people have been killed in Nigeria. The current virus outbreaks are concentrated in West African countries such as Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.
    At least 1,400 people have died and 2615 have been infected. The new semester of the Nigerian school was originally scheduled to begin on the 25th.

    To prevent the spread of the deadly Ebola virus, the government decided to close schools at all levels and use this time to train staff on how to deal with patients who may be infected with the Ebola virus. 

    On September 5, 2014, the World Health Organization stated that the rapid spread of the Ebola virus raging in West Africa has become a global threat and requires concerted responses from various countries. It is estimated that at least $ 600 million will be required to control the epidemic.

    WHO Director-General Chen Fengfuzhen said at a press conference held by the United Nations Foundation in Washington that the Ebola virus has been discovered for almost 40 years.
    The epidemic is the most serious and complicated. As of this week, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have about 3,500 confirmed or suspected cases, and more than 1,900 have died. 

    As of September 16, 2014, a total of 4985 confirmed, suspected, and possible infections of Ebola virus have occurred in West Africa, and 2,461 died of the disease.
    With the rapid spread of the epidemic, the number of new cases in the past 21 days has accounted for 50% of the total number of cases. 

    As of September 28, 2014, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone had found a total of 7,157 cases of confirmed, suspected, and possible infection of Ebola virus in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The number of deaths was 3330. 

    On October 1, 2014, CNN reported that Dallas Presbyterian Hospital in Texas is treating the first Ebola patient diagnosed in the United States. 
    Thomas Frieden, director of the Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), confirmed on September 30 that the Ebola patient had returned to the United States from Liberia.

    On October 8, 2014, a hospital in Dallas, Texas, USA announced that the first Ebola patient found in the United States was dead on the morning of the 8th local time. 

    The World Health Organization said on the 29th local time that the number of infected cases in this round of the Ebola outbreak has reached nearly 14,000.
    However, the WHO also said that in Liberia, the country with the worst outbreak, the rate of infection was slowing.

    According to reports, the latest information released by the WHO states that in the three countries most affected by the outbreak, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, 4910 people have died of confirmed, suspected or possible Ebola virus infection.

    In the three countries mentioned above, a total of 13,676 confirmed, probable or suspected cases of infection have been reported. 

    The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan announced on November 7, 2014 that a 60-year-old man who had a short stay in Liberia, West Africa, suddenly developed fever symptoms, and the relevant department is conducting an emergency inspection to confirm whether he has contracted Ebola. Pull. 

    Since November 7th, all Ebola patients in Texas and those who have had contact with Ebola patients have safely spent 21 days.
    Judge Jenkins, who oversees Dallas County's response to the Ebola outbreak, said that Dallas County can declare its escape from Ebola from midnight on November 7. 

    On November 10, 2014, the international organization Médecins Sans Frontières announced that for the first time the number of cases of Liberia infection with Ebola virus has decreased.
    But experts also point out that this does not mean that the epidemic is coming to an end.

    The MSF hospital in Monrovia, the capital of Liberia, has a total of 250 beds, and currently only 50 patients are being treated here.
    In the northern part of the country, Ebola-infected patients are no longer being treated in similar institutions, and no new cases have appeared.
    The organization noted that for the first time, Liberia was infected with Ebola virus.

    At the same time, MSF experts point out that it is too early to say that the epidemic is about to end, because Guinea, Liberia's neighbor, had previously had fewer cases of infection, but the number of patients has increased again since then. 

    On December 30, 2014, WHO released data showing that more than 20,000 people in the three countries of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone in West Africa have been infected with the deadly Ebola virus.

    According to statistics released on the 27th, in the three countries most affected by the virus, 20081 people were infected with the virus, of which 9,409 were in Sierra Leone.

    Historical Report of Ebola Virus


    • 2014: Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa in 2014
    • 2017: Congo Ebola outbreak in 2017
    • 2018: Ebola outbreak in 2018
    • 2019: Ebola outbreak in 2019

    Laboratory infections: Ebola laboratory infections have been reported at least twice, once in 1976, at the Porton Down Institute of Microbiology (RME), a staff member who transferred Ebola-infected guinea pig liver homogenates in the laboratory.
    The needle penetrated the thumb and became infected. Another was in May 2004 in Victor Laboratory, Russia.
    A female scientist accidentally punctured her finger with a syringe needle infected with the virus, and died of the infection.

    From June to November 1976. In southern Sudan, a total of 284 cases occurred and 151 died, with a fatality rate of 53%.
    From September to October 1976, in the area surrounding the DRC (formerly known as Zaire), 318 cases were found, 280 cases died, and the case fatality rate was 88%.
    85 cases were infected with shared syringes, and the secondary cases were medical care and relatives of patients.

    In 1979, in the N'Zara area of ​​Sudan, 33 cases occurred and 22 died, with a case fatality rate of 67%.

    In June 1994, 49 cases were reported, 31 died, and the case fatality rate was 63% in the Minkerbo, Makocu and tropical rainforest gold mining areas in Gabon.

    An outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo began in January 1995.

    In April 1995, it occurred in Kikwete, DRC and its surrounding areas, with 315 cases of illness, 245 deaths, and a mortality rate of 77%. Secondary cases are mostly treatment and nursing staff, accounting for 25% of all cases.

    From February 1996 to January 1997, in northern Gabon, 60 cases occurred, 45 died, and the case fatality rate was 75%.
    The 66/97 epidemic originated from 21 villagers who came into contact with a chimpanzee who died in the jungle, and all of the subsequent cases attended the traditional funeral of the deceased.

    From August 2000 to January 2001 in Gulu, Masindi and Mbarara in northern Uganda. A total of 425 cases occurred and 224 died, with a fatality rate of 53%.

    From October 2001 to March 2002 in the Republic of the Congo abbreviated to the Congo (Brazzaville) and Gabon, a total of 123 cases occurred, 97 cases died, and the case fatality rate was 79%.

    From December 2002 to the end of April 2003, a total of 143 cases of infection occurred in the Republic of the Congo, 128 cases died, and the case fatality rate was 89%.
    The cause of the epidemic is related to human hunting activities and infections in contact with chimpanzees and other mammals.

    From April to June 2005, 12 cases occurred in Congo (Brazzaville), and all 9 patients were found dead. It was confirmed after autopsy sampling.

    On July 31, 2012 (local time), three cases of Ebola virus infection were detected in Uganda. As of August 3rd local time, 53 cases of Ebola virus infection have been confirmed and at least 16 have died. Another 312 people were isolated and suspected of being infected with Ebola. 
    A prisoner who had been quarantined in a hospital for a suspected case escaped.

    In 2014, the spread of Ebola virus in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone in West African countries spread at an alarming rate.
    The virus killed 82 people by April 1. As of April 14, 168 people had been infected in Guinea, of whom 108 died. 

    In July 2014, the first confirmed case of imported Ebola virus disease occurred in Nigeria, and the patient died in Lagos City on July 25.

    On the 26th, the Nigerian government announced that it would raise the alert for Nepal’s infectious diseases to a red level, and required all sea, land and air ports to implement Ebola virus disease surveillance and adopt corresponding health inspection and quarantine measures. 

    On July 27, 2014, a well-known Liberian doctor in Liberia died of the Ebola virus, and another American doctor was infected with the virus and is being treated.
    As of July 28, 2014, the epidemic has killed 672 people in West Africa, the highest number of deaths on record. 

    On July 29, 2014, the Sierra Leone health department confirmed that the doctor who led Sierra Leone's fight against the worst Ebola outbreak in history died of the Ebola virus infection on July 29 local time at the age of 39.
    Sheik Umar Khan personally treated more than a hundred patients, and before his death, dozens of local medical workers had died. 

    According to WHO statistics, this severe infectious disease has no specific medicine or vaccine, and its symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, internal bleeding and external bleeding.
    The death rate for this outbreak so far is 56%, but the highest in history is 90%. 

    On August 4, 2014, Nigerian Health Minister Chuku announced that the second case of Ebola virus infection has been diagnosed in Nigeria. The patient is a doctor in the southern city of Lagos. The second case was related to the first case and was one of two doctors who treated the first case. 
    Situation of Ebola Virus in Different Countries


    On August 6, 2014, Nigerian Health Minister Chuku announced in Abuja that a nurse in the southern Nigerian city of Lagos was diagnosed with Ebola virus infection. The nurse had taken care of and had close contact with Liberian official Sawyer, who was previously diagnosed with infection in Lagos.
    She was confirmed dead from Ebola hemorrhagic fever on the evening of the 5th. 

    On August 7, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the death toll was 932, but there may be problems such as missing statistics and deliberate concealment.

    On July 30, 2014, a woman returning from Kenya to Hong Kong, China was exposed to Ebola-like symptoms and has been isolated for treatment.
    Although the Hong Kong Food and Health Bureau later stated that the woman's symptoms did not meet the definition of a suspected case, she still Without panic, the Hong Kong Department of Health's consultation hotline was blasted by the public. 

    On 25 July 2014, Sawyer, a Liberian official, died in a Nigerian hospital. This incident raised concerns about "virus cross-border". Liberia's Treasury adviser Sawyer arrived in Lagos, Nigeria last week.
    He did not have any symptoms of viral infection before boarding the plane, but he started vomiting and diarrhea before reaching his destination.

    On August 8, 2014, the World Health Organization informed that as of August 6, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria had reported a cumulative total of 1,779 cases of Ebola virus, including 961 deaths.

    On August 19, 2014, the World Health Organization stated that Ebola virus had caused 1,229 deaths worldwide and 84 deaths in just three days. In 3 days, the number of infected cases increased by 113, bringing the total to 2,240.

    Liberia is the country with the fastest spread of the epidemic, with a recent increase of 48 infections and 53 deaths, bringing the country to 834 infected cases, including 466 deaths. 

    On August 28, 2014, the World Health Organization issued an update on the 28th, stating that the Ebola epidemic continues to rag, and 3,069 people have been infected in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria, of whom 1,552 have died.

    On September 17, 2014, World Health Organization (WHO) officials said that more than 2,500 people in West Africa have died from Ebola infection and that more than 5,000 people have been infected by the virus. 

    The WHO’s strategic route plan to combat the Ebola outbreak announced on the same day said that the actual number of infections may be several times the number of reported infections of 3,069.
    The WHO said that the total number of viral infections caused by the Ebola outbreak may exceed 20,000. 

    As of September 25, 2014, the Ebola outbreak in West Africa has killed more than 3,000 people.
    The latest figures show that 6,500 people in the area are believed to have been infected. Liberia is the worst affected country, with approximately 1,830 people dying.
    The United States has sent about 3,000 soldiers to Liberia to help combat the disease.

    Some studies warn that the number of people infected with Ebola virus could exceed 20,000 by early November.

    On October 6, 2014, the Spanish Ministry of Health informed that a Spanish caregiver was diagnosed with Ebola virus in Madrid, becoming the first patient infected with the virus in Europe.

    On July 24, 2018, the World Health Organization announced that the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo in May 2018 had officially ended. Main article: Ebola outbreak in 2018

    China Studies

    As of August 2014, five BSL-3 (commonly known as P3) laboratories in China have been able to detect Ebola virus and conduct laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus infection in on-look or suspected cases. 

    On September 3, 2014, China CDC introduced the progress of Ebola prevention and control work to the media. Li Dexin, a researcher at the China Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Viral Diseases, said that China has now established nucleic acid, antigen and antibody detection technology for Ebola virus, which can simultaneously detect multiple nucleic acid targets of Ebola virus.

    Among them, the nucleic acid test has the highest sensitivity. 
    The 20 cases of Ebola observation cases tested by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention have all been tested for nucleic acid at least once.
    In response to Ebola hemorrhagic fever, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention has also formulated new testing requirements. Each sample is tested for at least two genes of the virus. As long as one of them is positive, it is considered to be positive for Ebola virus to avoid early missed diagnosis. 

    Ebola virus is very virulent and can only be tested after inactivation of suspected samples in a BSL-3 laboratory. Counting the inactivation time, within 3 to 5 hours, a laboratory specimen of Ebola virus can be completed and the case can be diagnosed for Ebola infection. 

    According to Li Dexin, a researcher at the Institute of Viral Diseases of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, there are currently no effective drugs for the treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in the world, and there is no effective vaccine to prevent Ebola virus infection. Control measures are of great significance.
    At present, more than 80 Ebola cases have been screened in China, and most of them have been excluded from Ebola virus infection.

    In August 2014, researchers from the Institute of Viral Diseases of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention went to the Pasteur Institute in France to conduct a cooperative research on the detection method of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and completed the fluorescent RT-PCR nucleic acid detection kit and colloidal gold immunochromatography. Validation of Ebola virus detection kits such as antigen detection kits, ELISA antigen detection kits, etc.

    In September 2014, the China Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Diseases announced in Beijing yesterday that it has successfully developed an Ebola virus detection kit and will use it to carry out virus detection tasks in Sierra Leone. 
    Studies on Ebola Virus


    It is understood that the China Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Viral Disease Research Institute has successfully developed reagents for detecting Ebola nucleic acids, antigens, and antibodies.

    Previously, the testing team sent to the Sierra Leone Laboratory by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention carried the test reagent and will use the reagent in Sierra Leone launches virus detection mission. 

    After the outbreak of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014, the scientific research team of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences started a new vaccine research based on previous research.

    The vaccine passed a joint review by the state and the army and a clinical trial was launched in December.
    This is the world's third Ebola vaccine to enter clinical trials and the world's first 2014 gene-mutated Ebola vaccine. 

    On December 28, 2016, the Chinese Academy of Military Medical Sciences announced on the 28th that 500 cases of Phase II of the recombinant Ebola vaccine rAd5-EBOV, developed by a researcher team of Chen Wei from the Institute of Bioengineering of the Institute, were launched in Sierra Leone, Africa. Clinical trials succeed.
    This is a historic breakthrough after China's vaccine research went abroad for the first time. In the early morning of the 23rd, the internationally renowned medical journal The Lancet published related research papers online.

    Ebola Virus Case analysis

    The first confirmed Ebola carrier in the United States, 42-year-old Thomas Eric Duncan, died in the isolation ward of the Texas Hospital on the morning of the 8th. Wendell Watson, a spokesman for the Dallas Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital that admitted Duncan, said on the 8th, "We announce with great sadness and extreme sadness that Duncan died at 7.51 this morning.

    Mr. Duncan died of an illness Ebola, who has bravely battled the disease. Our professionals, doctors and nurses, and the Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital in all Dallas communities, have expressed deep sorrow for his death.

    The Liberian Duncan, who arrived in Texas in mid-September to visit relatives, was the first patient in the United States to be diagnosed with Ebola and became the first person to die from the disease in the United States.

    Duncan, who had been exposed to the deadly Ebola virus before leaving Liberia, showed no symptoms when he arrived in the United States on September 20. A few days later, Duncan felt unwell and went to the emergency room of the Presbyterian Hospital.
    The hospital ignored his travel records and sent him home.
    Two days later, Duncan was returned to the hospital by ambulance for "strict isolation." 

    On September 30, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed that Duncan was the first patient with Ebola virus found in the United States.

    The negligence of the hospital exposed more people to the danger of infection. The 48 family members, health care workers and friends who have had direct or indirect contact with Duncan are currently under quarantine or closely monitored.

    Biological warfare

    Due to the extremely high lethality of Ebola virus, it is classified by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as the highest level of biological terrorist attack weapon. It is considered to be the most feared potential biological weapon that threatens public safety and health.

    Ebola is considered a biological weapon because of its lethality, but due to the short incubation period of the virus, it is likely that it will not be able to spread on a large scale after killing some people first. Therefore, some virus researchers hope to combine a smallpox virus to create a virus with a wide range of transmission and lethality as a weapon for terrorist attacks.

    In 1992, Akira Asahara, the leader of Aum Shinrikyo in Japan, led 40 members to the DRC, hoping to obtain the virus as a tool for the Holocaust, but it was not successful in the end. 

    Ebolavirus Art work

    In 1994, the American writer Preston wrote the novel The Hot Zone against this background. This novel was popular and attracted worldwide attention to this mysterious virus. The disease was discovered in Gabon in December 1994.

    In 1995, Hollywood released the film 'Extreme Panic' starring Dustin Huffman, which reproduced the horror scene of Ebola virus killing people on the screen, making the global audience famous for Ebola virus.

    In 1996, the Hong Kong Chinese film 'Ebola Virus' was produced by Wang Jing, directed by Qiu Litao, and starred in the film's emperor Huang Qiusheng. The film tells the story of a serial killer who was murdered after being infected by Ebola virus.



    Author's Bio

    Doctor Shawna Reason, Virologist
    Dr. Shawna Reason
    Name: Shawna Reason

    Education: MBBS, MD

    Occupation: Medical Doctor / Virologist 

    Specialization: Medical Science, Micro Biology / Virology, Natural Treatment

    Experience: 15 Years as a Medical Practitioner

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