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ECHO Virus Cause Transmission Diagnosis and Treatment

Cause Transmission Diagnosis and Treatment of ECHO virus  

ECHO virus is an abbreviation for enteric cytopathic human orphan virus. It was called orphan virus because it was unknown when it was first isolated in 1950.

Name:    Echovirus

Nature:    RNA virus
Multiple seasons:    Summer, autumn
way for spreading:    Mouth-fecal transmission
Diagnosis method:    Virus culture and serology

Called:    Orphan virus

Harm:    ECHO virus can cause many diseases in humans

    What harm can ECHO Virus cause?

    ECHO virus can cause a variety of diseases in humans, from mild respiratory infections to group B virus-induced myocarditis, pericarditis, meningoencephalitis, and severe infant systemic diseases. 
    Biological traits Coxsackie virus is similar to polio virus in morphology, physical and chemical traits, mode of replication, pathogenicity and epidemiology. Newborn mice are sensitive to Coxsackie virus infection. 

    They are divided into two groups, namely group A and group B, according to the pathogenic characteristics of the virus to newborn mice. 

    Group A viruses have 1 to 24 serotypes, of which A23 belongs to ECHO9. Group B viruses have 1 to 6 serotypes. 

    Group A virus infects newborn mice can cause extensive myositis of skeletal muscle, leading to relaxation paralysis. 
    Group B virus produces local myositis, encephalitis and more typical necrotizing steatitis. 

    Some strains also develop pancreatitis, myocarditis, endocarditis, and hepatitis in suckling and adult rats. 
    Group B viruses and a few types (7, 9, 16, etc.) in group A can grow in monkey kidney cells. 
    ECHO virus can also proliferate in human embryonic kidney or monkey kidney cells to produce CPE. 

    Pathogenic and immune patients and asymptomatic carriers are the source of infection. 

    The main route of transmission is the fecal-oral route, with an incubation period of 2-9 days. 
    Humans can isolate the virus from the pharynx, feces, and blood at an early stage of infection, sometimes for 5 to 6 weeks. 

    Most infected people are subclinical. Coxsackie Group B virus-induced infant infections and viral heart disease can often be fatal.

    What Illness can ECHO virus cause?

    1. Asepticmeningitis is caused by Coxsackie Group B virus and common A7, A9, and ECHO viruses. 
    Early clinical symptoms include fever, headache, general malaise, vomiting and abdominal pain, mild paralysis, and symptoms such as neck stiffness and meningeal irritation after 1 to 2 days.

    2. Herpangina is caused by A2 - A6, A8, A10 in Coxsackie A group. Typical symptoms are fever, sore throat, soft palate, and blisters around the uvula.

    3. Hand-foot-mouth disease is caused by Coxsackie's A16 and neo-enteric virus 71, and sometimes A5 and A10. 
    It is characterized by mouth and pharynx ulcers, vesicular herpes on the palms and soles of the feet, and can sometimes spread to the arms and legs.

    4. Myocarditis. Primary cardiomyopathy in adults and children is caused by the Coxsackie Group B virus, which accounts for approximately 5% of heart disease.
    ECHO virus 1, 6, 9 and other types can also be caused. Neonatal infections often cause death, and those infected at other ages can cause significant heart damage, and persistent infections can occur, triggering autoimmune responses that cause cardiomyopathy.

    5. Infant systemic disease This is a very serious, multi-organ infectious disease that includes the heart, liver, and brain. 
    Caused by Coxsackie B virus infected with fetus through placenta or contact infection caused by improper care.
    Some types of ECHO virus can also be caused. Infants often have symptoms such as drowsiness, difficulty in pumping, and vomiting, with or without fever, and further develop into myocarditis or pericarditis, or even die.

    Also. Coxsackie virus and ECHO virus can also cause respiratory infections, gastrointestinal diseases, chest muscle pain and other diseases, which may also be related to type I diabetes.
    After being infected with Coxsackie virus and ECHO virus, humans can produce specific neutralizing antibodies, and have long-lasting immunity to homologous viruses. 
    Microbiology examination and virus isolation.

    Take throat swabs or throat swabs, feces, conjunctival swabs and other specimens, inoculate primary or passage monkey kidney cells, culture for 5 to 14 days, observe cytopathological changes daily, and use standard serum to identify viruses Or inoculated suckling mice, group A virus usually occurs within 3 to 8 days, and group B virus usually develops symptoms within 5 to 14 days, and then is identified based on pathological damage and immunological methods. 

    Serological tests can use immunofluorescence to detect antigens in cells, or ELISA to detect antibodies.
    RT-PCR can also be used to detect its specific nucleic acid fragments. There are no vaccines or drugs to prevent and treat Coxsackie and ECHO virus infections.
    ECHO Virus Cause &  Transmission

    What is the way for Spreading of ECHO virus?

    ECHO Virus Transmission: It is mainly transmitted through the oral-fecal route, and it can also be transmitted through the respiratory tract through throat secretions.
    After the virus enters the human body, the intestinal mucosal cells of the pharyngeal machine proliferate, invade the bloodstream, and form viremia. Elcovirus is very infectious and can infect almost all cells in the body.
    Transmission of ECHO Virus

    What is the Diagnosis (Clinical Manifestation) of ECHO virus?

    The clinical manifestations of ECHO virus infection are similar to rubella. 
    Although the infection in the first trimester can affect the fetus, it rarely causes deformities. 

    According to 1957 cases of ECHO9 infection in Minnesota in the United States in 1957, the age of onset is 2.5 to 33 years old, and the common symptoms are upper respiratory infection, fever, non-purulent meningitis and rash.
    The rash is maculopapular or measles-like rash that subsides naturally for 1 to 3 days. 

    The virus can be isolated from stool, pharyngeal secretions and cerebrospinal fluid. Many investigations (Kleinman, 1962, Milwaukee, 1957.
    Peterson and Glicklich, 1960; Landsm-an, 1964) have not concluded that ECHO virus is teratogenic.  

    Clear ECHO virus Clinical Manifestations

    What are the Diagnosis instructions for ECHO virus?

    Mainly rely on virus culture and serology. Virus culture specific operations:
    Patients' blood, cerebrospinal fluid, herpes fluid, pleural cavity and pericardial effusion can be inoculated in monkey kidney cells or human embryo lung cells for culture. 
    Serological examination: After serological examination of Ecovirus infection, specific antibodies can be detected in the patient's serum, and serum antibodies in the recovery and acute phases are generally detected.
    ECHO Virus Diagnosis

    What are the Treatment Instructions for ECHO virus?

    There is need of no special treatment. Symptomatic treatment includes antipyretic and analgesic, antibiotics and prevention of complications, complications. 
    ECHO Virus Treatment

    Infected patients during pregnancy should pay attention to exclude fetal malformations, newborns should be observed in isolation.

    Author's Bio

    Doctor Shawna Reason, Virologist
    Dr. Shawna Reason
    Name: Shawna Reason

    Education: MBBS, MD

    Occupation: Medical Doctor / Virologist 

    Specialization: Medical Science, Micro Biology / Virology, Natural Treatment

    Experience: 15 Years as a Medical Practitioner

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