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Bird Flu Virus Infection Disease Prevention and Treatment


Infection Disease Prevention and Treatment of Bird Flu Avian influenza virus

Meaning of Bird Flu: Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an influenza A virus. Influenza viruses belong to the Orthomyxoviridae family of RNA viruses, which are divided into three types: A, B and C. Influenza A viruses are more common in poultry, and some A can also infect various mammals and humans such as pigs, horses, seals and whales. Influenza B and C viruses are found in seals and pigs, respectively.

It is the viral influenza of poultry, which is an infectious disease caused by influenza A virus, which is a variety of symptoms of poultry ranging from respiratory system to severe systemic sepsis. Avian influenza is easy to spread among birds. In the past, it was called "chicken plague" by the people. It was classified as a Class A infectious disease by the International Bureau of Veterinary Disease. 

Avian influenza outbreaks occurred in Australia, Italy, Hong Kong, and the Netherlands in 1994, 1997, 1999 and 2003, respectively, and mainly in Southeast Asia and Europe in 2005.

Medical Name:    Bird flu virus

English name:    AIV

Onset:    Respiratory tract

Multiple groups:    Children, the elderly

Infectious:    Yes

Way for spreading:    Breath


    What is the Prevention of Bird Flu Virus AIV?

    Avian influenza generally occurs in spring and winter, and it is generally not transmitted from person to person. Pay attention to the following points to prevent avian induction:

     a. Wash your hands frequently. Be away from the secretions of poultry, contact with poultry, birds or poultry and bird droppings. Please wash your hands thoroughly with disinfectant and water to avoid traveling to the infected area.

    b. Develop good personal hygiene habits. Cover your mouth with your hands or toilet paper when coughing. Strengthen indoor air circulation. Open the window 1 to 2 times a day for half an hour. Have enough sleep and rest.  Eat a balanced diet. Pay attention to taking more photos Into some foods rich in vitamin C and other immune-enhancing food.

    c. Eat poultry meat to be cooked and cooked through. When eating eggs, the eggshells are washed with running water first, and the cooking is fully heated. Do not eat raw or half-cooked eggs.

    What is Bird Flu Virus Morphology?

    Polymorphism, in which the spherical diameter is 80 - 120nm, there is capsule. The genome is segmented single stranded negative strand RNA. According to the difference in the antigenicity of the outer membrane hemagglutinin (H) / and neuraminidase (N) proteins, it can be divided into 16 H subtypes (H1 - H16) and 9 N subtypes (N1 - N9). 

    The subtypes of avian influenza viruses infecting humans are mainly H5N1, H9N2, and H7N7. Among them, patients infected with H5N1 are severely ill and have a high mortality rate.

    Studies performed

    Studies have shown that the original low-pathogenic avian influenza virus strains (H5N2, H7N7, H9N2) can become highly pathogenic virus strains (H5N1) after rapid mutations among the birds of 6-9 months.

    Epidemiology

    Avian influenza virus attacks healthy cells
    Breed in the digestive tract of waterfowl.
    They are mainly poultry infected with avian influenza or carrying avian influenza virus. In addition, wild birds or pigs can also be the source of infection. 

    Many poultry can be infected with the virus:
    Turkey, chicken, pigeon, guinea fowl, quail, parrot and other land birds can be infected, but turkey and chicken are the most susceptible, with high morbidity and mortality.

    Ducks and Waterfowls such as geese are also susceptible to infection, and can carry poison or recessive infections, and sometimes die in large numbers. Chickens and turkeys of various ages can be infected and die, while the mortality rate for waterfowls such as ducklings and goslings is high.

    In addition to wild birds, such as swans, terns, wild ducks, coastal birds and seabirds, influenza viruses have been isolated from the following species of birds.

    Starlings, rock chickens, sparrows, crows, jackdaws, pigeons, rock partridges, Swallows, herons, Canada geese and muscovy ducks. 

    According to reports, 88 species of birds with avian influenza virus have been found, and rodents cannot be naturally infected with influenza virus.

    Different breeds of poultry have different chances of being infected with avian influenza, but it has not been found that the occurrence of highly pathogenic avian influenza is related to the gender of the bird. The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus can also be transmitted through eggs.

    The transmission of highly pathogenic avian currents between flocks mainly depends on horizontal transmission, such as air, feces, feed and drinking water.

    There is little evidence of vertical transmission. However, experiments have shown that the eggs infected with chickens contain influenza virus, so the possibility of vertical transmission cannot be completely ruled out. Therefore, eggs from contaminated chickens should not be used for hatching.

    The virus can be excreted with the respiratory tract, eye and nose secretions, and feces of sick birds, and the birds are infected through the digestive tract and respiratory tract. 

    Any object contaminated with sick poultry feces and secretions, such as feed, poultry houses, cages, feeding and management equipment, drinking water, air, transportation vehicles, people, insects, etc., may spread the virus.

    What is the Way for Spreading of Bird Flu Virus?

    Mainly through the respiratory tract, through close contact with infected birds and their secretions, excreta, virus-contaminated water, etc., and direct contact with virus strains are infected.

    The feces infected with waterfowl contain a high concentration of virus and spread the influenza virus through the fecal-oral route through the contaminated water source. 

    No concealed carriers of human infection have been found, and there is no definite evidence of human-to-human transmission.

    Susceptible crowd

    It is generally believed that there is susceptibility at any age, but children under 12 years old have a higher incidence and a serious condition. High-risk groups are those who have close contact with poultry that has died of unknown causes or infected poultry that is suspected of being infected with avian influenza.

    What are the Popular Features of Bird Flu Virus?

    Avian influenza is distributed worldwide, with outbreaks in 1994, 1997, 1999, and 2003 in Australia, Italy, Hong Kong, and the Netherlands, respectively. In 2005, outbreaks occurred mainly in Southeast Asia and Europe.

     Except for the bird flu in chickens, which occurs mainly in winter and spring, there are no other obvious regularities. 

    The spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic has attracted worldwide attention. 

    The analysis of the climate characteristics of the epidemic area by Chinese meteorologists shows that avian flu "dislikes" sunny and hot weather.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) believes that sick poultry manure is the main transmission channel, and some experts believe that migratory bird migration is also one of the transmission channels.

    Weather and climate conditions are an important factor in the natural environment, and their changes or abnormalities usually play a role in the occurrence, aggravation or alleviation of some diseases.

    Experts believe that the avian influenza virus likes to be cold and humid, and the ultraviolet rays in the sun have a certain killing effect on the virus. 

    In the late winter and early spring, cold air activity is frequent, and the temperature rises and falls suddenly, which will be detrimental to the control and prevention of the occurrence of bird flu.

    In addition, as the temperature warms up, migratory birds will migrate northward, and the range of viruses transmitted by migratory birds will expand, which will also be detrimental to the control of bird flu.

    The WHO believes that the H5N1 avian influenza virus strain in sick chicken faeces will spread in the air and be carried away by the wind to spread avian influenza. 

    Judging from the hours of sunshine, the analysis shows that areas with less sunshine are prone to bird flu. This is consistent with the opinion put forward by agricultural experts that the avian influenza virus can only survive for 24 to 28 hours in the sun, and is generally prevalent in the winter and spring seasons, and basically calms down from May to October.

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus is mainly transmitted through the air. With the help of hemagglutinin (H) on the surface of the virus, it binds to the corresponding receptor on the surface of the respiratory mucosal epithelial cells and adsorbs it on the host respiratory epithelial cells. 

    In addition, by using the neuraminidase (N) on the surface of the virus to act on the receptor of the nuclear protein, the virus and the nuclear protein of the epithelial cell are combined to form an RNA-type soluble antigen in the nucleus, and it leaks to the cytoplasm and replicates the progeny.

     The virus, through the action of neuraminic acid, expels the epithelial cells in a budding manner. The cycle of a replication process is 4 to 6 hours.

    The discharged virus spreads to nearby cells and produces an inflammatory response. Clinically, fever, muscle pain and leukopenia and other systemic toxicemia-like reactions occur.


    The virus mainly invades the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract mucosa, causing epithelial cell hyperplasia, necrosis, local mucosal hyperemia, edema, and superficial ulcers.

     After 4-5 days, the basal cell layer lesions can expand to the bronchi, bronchiole, alveoli and bronchial tissues, causing mucosal edema, hyperemia, lymphocyte infiltration, and accompanied by microvascular embolism, necrosis, small aneurysm formation and bleeding, etc. Systemic toxemia-like reaction. 

    In addition to changes in bronchiolitis, a small number of severe progressive pneumonia may have alveolar wall congestion and edema, fibrin exudation, mononuclear cell infiltration and hyaline membrane formation, and pulmonary hemorrhage, etc., causing many complications.

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus is highly virulent, and the infectious allergic reaction (type IV allergy) caused by severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is serious. The root cause of complications.

    What is the Relationship of Bird Flu Virus with Humans?

    Human research and prevention of bird flu have a history of more than 100 years. Gene fragments, unless avian influenza viruses and human influenza viruses undergo genetic recombination, it is difficult to invade humans and cause transmission from person to person.

    The occurrence of human bird flu can only be caused by contact with sick birds. People have a low chance of contracting the virus.

    Avian influenza viruses are influenza A viruses. Influenza viruses belong to the Orthomyxoviridae family of RNA viruses, which are divided into three types A, B and C.

    What are the Pathological changes under Bird Flu?

    Simple flu?

    Only the catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory tract changed, and the mucosa showed hyperemia, edema and lymphocyte infiltration. Fibroepithelial cells are degenerated, necrotic and shed.

    Pneumonia influenza

    The lungs are dark red edema. There are bloody secretions and mucosal congestion in the trachea and bronchi.

    The ciliated epithelial cells are necrotic and shed. There is submucosal focal hemorrhage, edema and leukocyte infiltration. 

    There is fibrin exudate in the alveoli, including neutrophils and lymphocytes. There is bleeding in the alveoli of the middle lobe of the lung, and there may be a transparent membrane in the alveoli, and the lung tissue is easy to isolate influenza virus.

    Bird Flu Virus Infection

    What are the Serious Complications under Bird flu?

    The main pathological change is lung consolidation. Pulmonary interstitial edema and reduced interstitial negative pressure increase the tendency of small airway occlusion, resulting in atelectasis. There is reduced alveolar membrane surfactant and alveolar occlusion. 

    Combined with congestion of the lungs, lung volume decreases and lung compliance Sexual decline, leading to serious complications such as acute respiratory syndrome.


    There are differences in receptor specificity, and the avian influenza virus is not easily infected. Individual bird flu viruses that cause human infections may have been mutated. 

    The possibility of mutation is that more than two viruses enter the same cell for recombination. For example, pigs can be infected with human influenza virus or avian influenza virus. 

    Each virus has 8 gene fragments. In theory, it can form 256 new recombinant viruses. The second is the virus gene locus due to certain factors.

    In April 1983, Pennsylvania and the United States had an outbreak of H5N2 virus-caused low-pathogenic avian influenza in chickens and turkeys.

    There was effective control, by October of the same year, the same H5N2 strain suddenly changed from low pathogenicity to high pathogenicity, causing a large number of poultry deaths.

    Adaptability

    Bird Flu viruses are sensitive to organic solvents such as ether, chloroform and acetone. Commonly used disinfectants can easily inactivate them, such as oxidants, dilute acids, sodium lauryl sulfate, halogen compounds (such as bleach and iodine) can quickly destroy its infectivity.

    Avian influenza virus is more sensitive to heat. It can be inactivated by heating at 65 ° C for 30 minutes or boiling (100 ° C) for more than 2 minutes. 

    The virus can survive for 1 week in feces and 1 month in water, and has the ability to survive under pH <4.1. The virus has strong resistance to low temperature resistance, and can maintain vitality for more than 1 year when protected by glycerin.

    The virus can be inactivated in direct sunlight for 40 to 48 hours, and if it is directly irradiated with ultraviolet rays, it can quickly destroy its infectivity.

    What is the Molecular characteristics of Bird Flu Virus?

    Molecular Structure

    Crystal structure of avian influenza virus polymerase
    The widespread outbreak caused by the H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus poses a major global threat to human health. 

    Due to the constant mutation of viruses, the development of new anti-influenza drugs has become an extremely urgent major issue in various countries.
    Among them, revealing the three-dimensional structure of proteins closely related to influenza virus is not only of great scientific significance for revealing the replication mechanism of influenza virus, but also of great value for the development of anti-influenza virus drugs. 

    The research group led by the researcher Liu Yingfang of the Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and the research group led by academician Rao Zihe made breakthrough progress in this field.
    They were the first in the world to reveal the key part of influenza virus polymerase PA subunit and PB1 polypeptide complex The fine three-dimensional structure of the body.

    Influenza A virus polymerase is composed of three proteins-PA, PB1 and PB2, which is the key to transcription and replication.

    Two groups reported the crystal structure of the C-terminal region of the avian influenza virus H5N1 PA in the complex formed with the PA binding region of PB1. This structural study may be useful for the design of new antiviral drugs.
    Bird Flu Virus Infection

    The influenza virus genome contains 8 RNA fragments and is known to encode 11 viral proteins. Among them, the polymerase complex composed of PA, PB1 and PB23 subunits is a key component responsible for viral genome RNA replication and viral mRNA transcription.
    Also, because of its high conservation and low mutation rate, it has become an anti-influenza virus drug design Important target. 

    Over the years of research, PB1 is the catalytic subunit of viral RNA polymerase, responsible for the replication and transcription of viral RNA.

    PB2 is responsible for capturing the host's CAP cap structure in a manner called "Snatch" for viral mRNA transcription. 

    The PA sub-unit is not only involved in the process of viral replication, but also participates in a variety of viral activities such as viral RNA transcription, endonuclease activity, protease activity, and viral particle assembly, so it appears exceptionally in the study of the entire polymerase complex as important. 

    After screening crystal growth conditions, optimizing crystal quality, high-resolution data collection, phase analysis, electron density map interpretation, and structural correction, they used new ideas to analyze the 2.9 angstroms of the PA-PB1 amino-terminal peptide protein complex.

    Resolution crystal structure

    The structure clearly shows the interaction mode of PA and PB1 polypeptides, and it is found that the amino acid residues at the action site are highly conserved in influenza viruses, which provides an ideal for the research of broad-spectrum anti-influenza (including human influenza and avian influenza) drugs Target protein.
    At the same time, based on the structure of the complex and the results of some known protein mutants, it is speculated that the PA subunit plays a role in the polymerase, providing a molecular basis for further functional studies. 

    The disclosure of the structure of this complex is of great significance for revealing the mechanism of influenza virus polymerase action and carrying out drug design work against influenza virus.

    Polymerase

    It is a general term for a class of enzymes that specializes in the biocatalytic synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).

    It can be divided into the following groups:

    1.  DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.
    2.  RNA-dependent DNA polymerase.
    3.  DNA-dependent RNA polymerase.
    4.  RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. 

    The first two are DNA polymerases, which extend the DNA replication chain in the order of the template. For example, in prokaryotes, only three types have been found in E. coli (referred to as P01, P01 and P01, etc.).

    DNA polymerase can only be based on primers, that is, 3 'of DNA or RNA primers. -OH extension, the synthesis direction of this DNA is recorded as 5 '→ 3'. In other words, in addition to the substrate (αNTP), the DNA polymerase catalyzed reaction also requires Mg2 +, template DNA and primers.

    So far, no synthesis of DNA from monomers has been found in cells. Similarly, the above (3) and (4) are the most important RNA synthetases in catalyzing RNA biosynthesis reactions. They use four kinds of ribonucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) as substrates and require DNA templates and Mn2 + and Mg2 +.

    In the presence, the 3′-OH of the previous nucleotide and the 5′-P of the next nucleotide polymerize to form a 3 ′, 5′-phosphodiester bond, and the direction of the nascent chain is also 5 ′ → 3 ′. 

    RNA polymerase is also abundant in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. For example, E. coli RNA polymerase has a molecular weight of 4.8 × 105 and is composed of five polypeptide chains, which are named α, α, β, β' and γ, respectively. 

    The total enzyme can be expressed by α2ββ′λ. The eukaryotic RNA polymerase molecule is larger than 5 × 105, and is composed of 10-12 subunits of different sizes. In addition to being an indispensable component of life activities in nature, polymerase is mostly used as one of the enzymes in life science research in the laboratory.

    New H5N1

    The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization pointed out on the 29th that H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus that can be transmitted to humans through poultry, has been spreading in recent years.

    Lubrov, the chief veterinary official of FAO, pointed out that the spread of H5N1 avian influenza virus has spread in recent years, and H5N1 variant viruses have also appeared in China and Vietnam, which can make existing vaccines useless. 
    He called on all countries to be prepared to closely monitor the virus to prevent the spread of the epidemic.

    Lubrov pointed out that bird migration is the culprit responsible for the spread of the H5N1 avian influenza virus, and the production and sale of poultry also contributed to the spread of H5N1.
    He also pointed out that in the past two years, the virus has spread through long-distance migration of birds to countries that have eradicated the virus.

    Lubrov also expressed concern about the H5N1 variant virus that appeared in China and Vietnam. He pointed out that this mutant virus can resist the effects of existing vaccines, and appealed to relevant countries not to take it lightly, but to be fully prepared to monitor this virus.

    Virologists warned on Tuesday that there is no vaccine to prevent the H5N1 avian influenza variant strains circulating in China and Vietnam, and called on all walks of life to strengthen surveillance of the virus so as not to infect humans.

    The veterinary department in Vietnam is highly vigilant and is said to be considering a new and targeted vaccination campaign in the fall. 

    The spread of the virus in Vietnam directly threatens Cambodia, Thailand and Malaysia, as well as the Korean Peninsula and Japan further away. The migration of wild birds can also spread the virus to other continents.

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) warned on Monday that avian influenza may be swept up again, saying that the H5N1 avian influenza variant strain is spreading in Asia and other regions.

    Scientists are still not sure whether the new strain H5N1-2.3.2.1 is more deadly to humans, but they point out that the strain is very different from the original virus, and human vaccines against the original virus are not effective.

    Malik Peiris, a virologist at the University of Hong Kong, said: "At present, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended a human vaccine for H5N1. But it cannot be completely prevented (new strains).

    "But this is very common. The H5 virus is constantly changing, so we must also develop new vaccines to respond."

    What is the Preventive Treatment against Bird Flu Virus?

    Vaccine for Bird Flu Virus

    Influenza virus vaccination is currently the first choice for humans to prevent influenza. However, due to the large number of influenza virus serotypes, once the antigenicity of influenza virus vaccine strains and epidemic strains do not match, the vaccine will be invalid and unable to provide corresponding protection. 

    At the same time because the rate of influenza virus mutation is very fast, and the speed of vaccine development lags behind the rate of virus mutation, after the emergence of new epidemic strains, the preparation of the corresponding vaccine requires at least 6 months, resulting in the preparation of the vaccine has been in a passive state. So regardless of traditional Inactivated vaccines, genetic engineering vaccines, nucleic acid vaccines and other new vaccines cannot provide cross protection for all types of influenza viruses.

    Inhibiting drugs

    There are two main types of chemical drugs used to treat influenza: one is ion channel inhibitors, that is, to target the ion channel protein M2 of influenza virus, and to block the replication of influenza virus by interfering with the activity of the ion channel protein of influenza virus M2 protein. 

    There are greater toxic and side effects, and drug-resistant strains have appeared. 
    The second is neuraminidase inhibitors, that is, inhibitors that target the neuraminidase NA of influenza virus, which effectively inhibits viral particles by inhibiting the activity of the enzyme.

    Released on the surface of the host cell membrane, thereby inhibiting the process of influenza virus infection of new host cells. 

    Drug-resistant strains of the drug have also appeared in patients infected with H5N1 avian influenza virus. In addition, there are some artificially synthesized sialic acid oligosaccharide analogs and single-flavor and compound traditional Chinese medicine preparations that are resistant to influenza A virus, but they are difficult to promote on a large scale for various reasons. 

    Treatment of poultry and bird flu: Guohao Yizhenling 1ml / kg + interferon + cephalosporin pioneer, those who are seriously ill can use first aid interferon to drink water.
    Mortality Rates due to Various Flu and Viruses
    Comparison Chart Analysis with Other Viruses and Flu



    What is the difference between Flu and Bird Flu?

    Flu is a contagious respiratory illness that RNA virus from the family known as orthomyxoviridae causes. This affects birds as well as mammals. 
    While Bird Flu is caused by the influenza Type viruses. It primarily infects birds and sometimes it can also transmit to human beings.



    Macau Epidemic

    On March 12, 2014, the Macau Civil Affairs Department detected H7 avian influenza virus in live poultry samples from the wholesale market. The authorities immediately took action. 
    On the morning of March 13, 2014, it began to culle more than 7,500 live poultry in the wholesale market.



    Author's Bio

    Doctor Shawna Reason, Virologist
    Dr. Shawna Reason
    Name: Shawna Reason

    Education: MBBS, MD

    Occupation: Medical Doctor / Virologist 

    Specialization: Medical Science, Micro Biology / Virology, Natural Treatment

    Experience: 15 Years as a Medical Practitioner

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