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Banana Bunchy Top Virus Symptoms Prevention and Treatment

What damage does banana bunchy top sickness cause? What signs are present? How can it be avoided?

A severe illness that affects bananas is banana bunchy top.

The plants that are vulnerable are small and don't blossom or develop buds. Only at the current bud stage are plants susceptible, and these plants have few fruits and are of minimal economic use.

Plant dwarfing is the disease's primary symptom. New leaves are shorter, tougher, straighter, and narrower than mature ones. The sick leaves are brittle and clumped, with thick, irregularly spaced green or black stripes on the veins. Virus called banana bunchy top is the pathogen.

Toxic seedlings are the primary source of infection in the new banana planting area, whereas diseased plants and their buds are the primary source of infection in the old banana planting region.


The illness is primarily spread locally and over long distances by poisonous buds and banana cross-vessel aphid, respectively. As a result, the presence of vector insects coincides closely with the peak period of sickness.

The illness takes one to three months to incubate. The cross-veined aphid also hosts plants from the genera Taro, ginger flowers, abaca, and heliconia in addition to bananas. There are currently no disease-resistant banana cultivars in existence.



    What are the Control Methods of banana bunchy top disease?

    i. Tissue culture and banana seedlings should be placed under stronger quarantine. The field-selected buds that will be used for tissue culture must adhere to the quarantine rules to the letter. The initial generation of tissue culture seedlings should be delivered to the appropriate departments for bioassay and serum analysis, and after they have been shown to be poison-free, they should be let to multiply.

    It is important to quickly eliminate the poisoned seedlings.


    ii. To stop the spread of toxic aphids, the nursery should be built in a location where there isn't a banana garden within two to three kilometres of the site.

    A 60-mesh bug net can be placed to the nursery's perimeter if necessary. To keep tissue culture seedlings disease-free during the fake planting phase, bag seedlings are sprayed with solutions such as 40% dimethoate 1000 times per 10 days - 1500 times solution, rotenine 800 times per solution, 50% aphid mist 2000 times per solution, etc.


    iii. The best technique to treat the illness is to use seedlings from disease-free tissue cultures.

    Regular inspections of the sporadically infected banana gardens are necessary, and the unsympathetic plants should be removed as soon as feasible. Replant the seedlings from the disease-free tissue culture after leaving the hole open for a month.



    How may banana bunching disease be avoided?

    Prevention methods for banana bunching disease: A popular fruit in our daily lives is the banana. It tastes sweet and pleasant and is nutrient-dense. People are fond of it.

    It is inevitable that some illnesses will surface while bananas are being planted. A prevalent condition among them is bunchy top sickness.

    This essay will present you to banana bunchy top disease prevention strategies.


    Banana bunching disease is also known as bushy top illness, scallion or shrimp banana.

    Early banana bunchy top disease victims have short, non-bud-pulling plants. There are only a few, tiny plants that are immune to infection at this stage of bud development.

    According to experts, banana bunchy top disease is a viral illness that primarily affects aphid strains in banana gardens, with sick seedlings playing a major role in long-distance transmission. The virus only infects abaca and sweet bananas as hosts.

    Farmers are now concerned with how to control the banana bunchy top disease.


    The following elements need to be the starting point for the prevention and treatment of banana bunchy top disease:

    1. Improve water, fertiliser, and soil management

    The presence of this disease can be prevented or reduced by actively managing the soil, fertiliser, and water conditions in banana gardens to encourage vigorous growth and improve disease resistance.


    2. Remove ill plants by hand

    They must be routinely inspected after planting, at least once every month.

    The infected plant must be removed after being located.

    Spray an insecticide to kill aphids before filling the heart with 100–300 cc of kerosene, pulling out the diseased plants two days later, or use herbicides to destroy the diseased plants.

    For instance, the Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences injected artificial stems 10 cm above the ground with 105 cc of glyphosate, and the stems essentially decayed in 30 days. The sick plants that are removed are burnt or buried deep in manure.


    3. Replanting different crops

    Due to too many opportunities for infection, healthy plants after digging out diseased plants will also have a big number of cases in hospitals with incidence rates of more than 30% to 50%.

    To lessen the source of this disease and the source of other diseases and insects, other crops should be replanted in this situation, or rice, sugarcane, etc. should be rotated

    4. Only select disease-free seedlings of bananas

    Banana gardens that are just starting out must carefully select dependable and disease-free seedlings as well as healthy and disease-free test tube seedlings for planting.

    The quality of sprouts is frequently unreliable, and their incidence after planting is frequently higher than that of seedlings grown in a test tube.


    5. Consistently eliminate aphids

    After planting, it should be periodically treated with insecticides to control aphids to close the transmission route, such as 40% oxymetholone 800-1000 times, 50% aphid mist 1500–2000 times, or other insecticides. For adult plants, it is sprayed once every month and once every 10 to 15 seedlings.


    What techniques are used to prevent and treat the condition known as banana bunchy top?

    Technical Sector

    The technological area of plant protection includes a method for controlling the banana bunchy top disease, which is the subject of the current invention.


    Background strategy

    A severe illness that affects bananas is banana bunchy top.

    In Yunnan Province, the prevalence of diseased plants in the field ranges from 5% to 10%, while some badly damaged banana gardens have a prevalence of 20% to 40%.



    Banana bunchy top virus

    What is the pathogenesis of bunchy top disease in banana bananas?

    Toxic seedlings are the primary source of infection in the new banana planting area, whereas diseased plants and their buds are the primary source of infection in the old banana planting region.

    The illness is primarily spread over long distances by deadly buds, while banana aphids are responsible for close-range transmission. As a result, the presence of vector insects coincides closely with the peak period of sickness.


    The illness takes one to three months to incubate. The cross-veined aphid also hosts plants from the genera Taro, ginger flowers, abaca, and heliconia in addition to bananas.


    What innovations have been used to combat banana bunch disease?

    A technique to avoid banana bunchy top illness is provided by the current invention.

    The technical fixes used by the present invention to address the aforementioned technical issues are:

    The following actions are part of an approach for avoiding and managing banana bunching disease:


    I) Ecological governance:

    Applying microbial fertilisers such as Woyiduo or Difuli would enhance the soil's physical and chemical characteristics, soil fertility, and banana roots' ability to absorb nutrients.

    II.) Agricultural control:

     (1) Choosing healthy types, sterile seedlings, and disease-free plants for planting are all examples of agricultural control.

     (2) Implement agricultural rotations lasting more than two years, including rice, sugarcane, and other crops, to lessen the spread of disease and insects.

     (3) Remove diseased plants in banana gardens in time, discover diseased plants, remove roots as early as possible, and remove them from the banana gardens for destruction. 

    The diseased plants should be removed in a timely manner from April to May each year.


     (4) Reasonable management of water and fertiliser, careful use of micro-fertilizers, and reasonable applications of nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium to boost immunity and resistance.

    • Steer clear of applying nitrogen fertilisers in part.

      • Feed the soil with enough organic fertilisers.

      • Improve the management of water and fertiliser.

      • Keep the soil moist.

      • Take ventilation into consideration.

    III.) Biological control:

    Spray a 200g/liter imidacloprid solution with water 4000 times on the front and back of the stem and leaves to spray aphids once every 7–10 days, a total of 2-3 times. This method also controls illness. Reduce the amount of pests in the fields. Virus transmission should be curbed.


    IV.) Biological control:

    Biological control: spray 500 times with a 0.5% solution of lentinan liquid 15-20 days after planting, repeating every 7–10 days.


    V.) Physical control:

    To stop the growth of new branches, the sick plants should be removed as soon as they are discovered, and the underground bulbs should be removed and destroyed. To stop the virus infection, the infected holes should be sanitised with lime.

    VI.) Chemical control:

    A 20% guanidine spray protection programme was established at the outset of the disease.

    Once every 10 days or so, ongoing prevention and therapy 2-3 times, 1000 times solution of copper acetate wettable powder, and other antiviral medications.


    The suggested technical approach for using Wo Yiduo in ecological management is to combine HYT-A and HYT-B in 15L of water, swirl to combine, and then leave at room temperature 2.


    Add HYT-C80-120g during the day, then set it aside for another day. Irrigate the roots after adding 250 kg of water and thoroughly stirring.

    The following is the special usage technique of the peculiar microbial fertiliser in ecological management, which is the preferable technical solution:

    The difluvial microbial fertiliser mixed with water is evenly mixed after being sprayed on the ground in accordance with 200–400ml of water and 15–30 kg of difluvial microbial fertiliser.


    Beijing Difulai Technology Development Co., Ltd. creates the biological bacterial fertiliser known as the Difulai microbial fertiliser used in the current innovation. Chromium, nickel, lead, tin, cobalt, and other heavy metals can be adsorbed and degraded using the Difuli microbial fertiliser. It can also breakdown and eliminate nitrite, hydrogen sulphide, and pesticide residues from crops.

    It has physiologically active components C, G, and F that can help crops circulate internally and quickly repair damaged cells to produce food that is safer.

    It can enhance the soil's physicochemical characteristics and raise the levels of humic acid and organic matter.


    The crop root system has developed, the fibrous roots are long, and there are lots of white roots. Additionally, the ventilation and water retention are good. Strong activity and enhanced soil nutrient absorption.


    Difuli may effectively fix nitrogen, activate soil rhizospheric microorganisms, release large, medium, and trace soil solidification components, give complete nutrition for bananas, and encourage vigorous seedlings. Boost the photosynthesis of bananas.

    Banana bunchy top illness is effectively prevented by disease and stress resistance.

    The woyiduo in the current innovation is a biological bacterial fertiliser that was created using the fundamental ideas of contemporary "organic agriculture," plant nutrition, and soil microecology in the rhizosphere. HYT-A, HYT-B, and HYT-C three are included in this.


    HYT-A is made up of 18 beneficial bacteria that are processed into bacterial agents that are non-toxic, non-pathogenic, and very active at fixing nitrogen in soil.

    Once they've been activated and expanded, they can be used for a number of Important nutrients including nitrogen, potassium, and fundamental inorganic mineral minerals are directly provided to the roots of the crop by the soil environment during each stage of its growth.


    Efficacy characteristics:

    i. It has a high rate of fertilisation efficiency, balanced nutrition, steady improvement in the rate of fertiliser use and soil fertility, and the period of validity can last for more than 4 months.


    ii. To improve the ecological structure of the soil, which has a big impact on preventing salinization, acidification, compaction, and pollution.

    iii. To create a biological control system that is highly effective at avoiding dead trees and thwarting double cropping.

    iv. To automatically modify crop growth, encourage germination, fortify seedlings, and enhance banana quality and production.


    The head and chest carapace of a bio-hydrolyzed marine organism, known as HYT-B, are treated with fermentation broth for late dissolution.


    Features of efficacy: Being rich in minerals, natural polymer, and 19 different types of L-amino acids, it can directly supply nutrients for the growth of microbes and plants.

    It can swiftly encourage the formation of agricultural root systems, improve leaf photosynthesis, improve disease and stress tolerance, produce robust seedlings and healthy plants, boost production, and enhance quality.

    High purity, chitin concentration, and chitinase-inducing actives are all present in abundance in HYT-C.


    Efficacy features: 

    • Can activate and induce plant and microbial organisms to produce a large number of biological enzymes, organic acids, alkaloids, and other disease resistance factors. 

    •  At the same time, it can rapidly promote the massive expansion of beneficial bacteria. 

    •  Provide nutrition for HYT-A soil microbial bacteria and crops. It might promote crop growth.


    Features of effectiveness:

    The current invention utilises ecological control, agricultural control, biological control, physical control, and chemical control approaches to significantly lower the occurrence of banana bunchy top disease. This has a positive effect and raises banana productivity and quality.

    The use of Difult microbial fertiliser can successfully increase soil biological colonies and soil structure, delay the development of banana bunchy top disease, and boost banana yield and quality.

    The current invention uses preventative measures, ecological control, agricultural control, biological control, physical control, and chemical control for overall control while utilising agricultural control, physical control, and other methods. 

    The average incidence of banana bunchy top disease is decreased by thorough prevention and treatment, which also increases production, considerably improves banana grades, and yields positive economic results.


    Technical Solutions

    Along with particular embodiments of the present invention, the technological solutions of the invention will be thoroughly discussed.

    Of course, the embodiments of the present invention that have been disclosed are not all of them, but a portion of them.


    All additional embodiments produced by a person of ordinary ability in the art without the need for inventive work are covered by the protection of the present invention based on the embodiments of the invention.


    Example

    The following actions are part of an approach for avoiding and managing banana bunching disease:


    I.) Ecological governance:

    Applying microbial fertilisers such as Woyiduo or Difuli would enhance the soil's physical and chemical characteristics, soil fertility, and banana roots' ability to absorb nutrients.


    II.) Agricultural control:

     (1) Choosing superior kinds, sterile seedlings, and disease-free plants for planting are all examples of agricultural control.

     (2) Rotation of crops over a longer period of time, including rice, sugarcane, and other crops, to lessen the spread of disease and insects.

     (3) As soon as the infected plants are discovered, the roots should be cut out as soon as possible, and the affected plants should be removed from the banana plantation for destruction. In the months of April and May each year, the unhealthy plants should be promptly removed.

     (4) Reasonable water and fertiliser management, careful application of micro-fertilizer, reasonable ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium to improve resistance and immunity, avoiding partial nitrogen fertiliser application, applying enough organic fertiliser to the soil, stepping up fertiliser and water management, keeping the soil moist, and paying attention to ventilation.

    III.) Biological control:

    Disease prevention and insect eradication Every 7 to 10 days, spray 2-3 times total on the front and rear of the stem and leaves with a 200g/liter imidacloprid solution diluted in water. Virus transmission should be curbed.

    IV.) Biological control:

    Spraying 15-20 days after planting

    1. Diseased plants 
    2. Diseased leaves 
    3. Toxic insects (banana cross vein aphid)

    The diseased plant's freshly formed leaves are narrower and shorter than one another, resulting in a short plant with leaves that grow in bundles to form a bundle top.

    The damaged plant's older leaves became yellow, but its newer leaves were a deeper shade of green than those of a healthy plant.

    The sick leaf is brittle and stiff, and it breaks readily in your hands.


    Careful examination reveals that many diseased leaves have numerous intermittent green veins on the veins of the leaves, and sometimes they turn into black stripes following chlorosis and transparency (the first infected plants are on the new leaves).

    The stripes are between 1 and 10 mm broad. The infected young leaves are more green than the healthy ones by 0.75mm because of the dark green streaks.


    The "green tendons," also known as the broad green stripes on the petioles and faux stems, are present. This is brought on by a virus-induced irregularity in the transmission and distribution of chlorophyll within the plant.

    The most accurate symptoms for identifying this disease, particularly in early infected plants, are dark green stripes and "green bars."

    The diseased plant has several tillers, reddish purple, dull roots, and the majority of the roots decay or turn purple, leaving no new roots.

    Nematodes predominately inhabit the sick plants' roots.


    In general, diseased plants do not bloom or generate buds. When the disease strikes, the buds are straight and weak if they are to be drawn. It has now reached the late growth stage, the leaves are aligned, and the "bundle top" symptom is not present.

    Although the veins of the immature leaves still have noticeable strong green stripes, the leaves still appear yellow.

    If the plant experiences symptoms following bud extraction, they are not always visible.


    In most cases, "green tendons" are still visible. The fruit axis is long and narrow, the fruit is small and few, the fruit tip is as thin as a finger, and the flesh is crisp and odourless. The flower buds may still be robust. Recessive bunchy top disease is the name given by some people to this kind of plant disease.


    The development of the phloem fibrous sheath was inhibited and transformed into cells with a vast number of chloroplasts, according to a microscopic inspection of the phloem tissue of the midrib of the leaf of the early diseased plant or petiole.

    Chloroplasts occupied the phloem's fundamental tissue (not in the healthy plant).


    The cell's basic tissue cells grow "parallelly" to form a large number of polygonal cells, each of which has an aberrant nucleus.

    Compared to healthy leaves, sick leaves have a decreased concentration of free amino acids.


    Diseased plants frequently perish as the buds open.

    Heart rot is caused by the adult plant's delayed growth following infection and the difficulty in removing the heart leaf.


    The disease known as banana bunching has become a significant barrier to Asia's banana crop. In 1986, bunching disease had spread to more than 100,000 mu of the 140,000 mu of banana gardens in Dongguan City, Guangdong, China, causing a loss of 24 million yuan in revenue.

    Between 1979 and 1981, almost 1.5 million kg of bananas and 100,000 banana plants in Nanning, Guangxi, suffered damage.


    What does the pathogen banana bunchy top virus entail?

    Banana bunchy top virus is the name of the pathogenic virus. Viruses are spherical mitochondria with identical diameters that are challenging to see under an electron microscope.

    There isn't much research on it, therefore it's unclear where to classify it yet.


    Banana cross-vein aphid and disease-absorbing buds (seedlings) are the principal carriers of this virus (Pentalonia nigronervosa Cog.). Infected plants and their disease-absorbing buds are what cause banana garden bunching disease to spread.

    The sole naturally occurring vector for the unique disease known as beam top disease is the banana cross-headed aphid.

    The cotton aphid (Aphis gossypis), according to Saotry (1980), can occasionally transfer the virus.

    After a recurrent period of several hours to 48 hours, banana cross-vein aphid (nymph) feeding on diseased plants for longer than 17 hours can cause the infected plants to become sick. If the healthy plants are then fed for longer than 1.5 hours, they can also become sick.


    The cross-legged aphid can continue to transmit drugs for up to 13 days. As a result, the virus is said to as "semi-persistent."


    There are two types of bunchy top virus: 
    Severe virus (severe) and weak virus (moderate). The length of the incubation period depends mainly on the time required to grow 2 banana leaves after receiving the poison, generally 19 days in summer and 125 days in winter. 

    Banana plant symptoms caused by banana aphid infestation can appear 35 to 40 days after the plant was poisoned.

    This virus only infects abaca and sweet bananas as hosts.

    How does the banana bunchy top virus disease get started?

    A perennial plant, the banana mostly reproduces through sucking buds. When a plant is sensitive, not only does the mother plant get sick, but also its buds do too (but individual buds can avoid virus infection without disease).

    Therefore, infected plants and their buds in the afflicted region, as well as diseased buds in the new area and the disease-free area, are the main sources of infection for the illness.

    Banana aphids or cotton aphids can spread the disease once an area has acquired an initial source of infection.

    After infection, banana seedlings can become ill 19–125 days later.

    A 2-3 hundred acre banana plantation might have a sickness rate of more than 80% in 4-5 years due to the ongoing aphid infestation.

    The cotton aphid and aphis gossypii are the primary carriers of the beam top disease in the field; juice cannot spread the illness.

    As a result, the environmental factors that influence the spread of the disease are primarily impacted, particularly those factors that influence aphid incidence.


    In general, the number of aphids increases, the number of winged aphids happens more frequently, and the disease manifests itself more badly in years with little rain and dry weather.

    Aphids have more frequent deaths from natural enemies and other causes on wet and humid days, but beam-top sickness is less common.


    Observation 

    Aphids are present throughout the year of the banana garden, although there are often two distinct peak times, from October to November and from late March to May of the following year.

    Aphids will hide in the depth of the horn mouth of the petiole in winter in late November (average daily temperature below 17 °C). Aphids like to suck juice from the horn mouth of the petiole of banana buds.

    Aphid populations and the length of the virus' incubation period have the biggest impacts on the development and decline of banana plantations.

    The onset typically starts in late March and gets worse.

    The incidence is highest in May, declines after June, and virtually disappears from December to March of the following year.

    The bananas stopped growing from December to February as a result of the cold temperatures and minimal rainfall.


    The plants did not exhibit symptoms despite being sensitive. March saw a modest rise in temperature and an increase in precipitation.

    Until April or May, the banana trees started growing again. progressively displaying symptoms


    Young sucking buds and seedlings drawn in the disease area are more vulnerable to illness than adult plants because aphids like to feast on these young sucking buds and seedlings.


    The most disease-prone fruits are bananas, while the Kanchikela and Venattukunnan cultivars have high resilience.

    Plantains and pink plantains have higher disease resistance.

    The disease resistance of passion bananas, including Longya, Sand, and Glutinous Rice Bananas, is subpar.

    The rate of sick plants rose that year after the banana had severe frost damage.

    A partial application of chemical nitrogen fertiliser results in an unbalanced nitrogen to potassium ratio, which is favourable to the development of illness. 

    The soil becomes more acidic when chemical nitrogen fertiliser is applied excessively, which reduces the disease resistance of banana plants and encourages the development of disease.


    The dwarfism of bundle-top sickness manifested later in the banana plantation when calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium oxide (MgO) (CaCl2: MgO = 3: 1) were applied.

    It also demonstrated that the illness was lighter in banana leaves with higher CaCl2 + MgO to K2O ratios.

    What are the Banana bunchy top viral prevention techniques?

    1. Strict isolation

    Use triphenyltetrazolium chloride to swiftly distinguish between sick and healthy plants, forbid seedlings, raise and plant disease-free seedlings, and choose non-toxic mother plants and suck buds before planting them.

    Strict selection of disease-free seedlings is the most crucial step in freshly constructed banana gardens, disease-free zones, and new districts. 

    When collecting seedlings in the ward, it is also necessary to choose banana seedlings from the garden that is either disease-free or only seldom infected, and to carefully inspect the mother plant before digging the seedlings. However, after planting, it needs to be monitored periodically because the virus has a protracted incubation period. 

    Aphid mist, anlubao, dimethoate, etc. should be used to prevent and control aphids whenever sick or suspect seedlings are discovered.

    After that, the sick plants must be dug out or 5–10 ml of a 40% glyphosate solution must be injected. After 15 days, the banana head of the angel rots.


    Some unhealthy sucking buds can resume normal growth and lessen the prevalence of illness when exposed to 2000 roentgen's gamma rays.

    To avoid the occurrence of bundle top illness, treat the pulp and soak the buds in quinoline-25 before planting banana seedlings.


    2. Quickly treating sick plants

    The unhealthy plants must be vigorously dug out, and the banana plantation should be monitored each month because they are unable to grow normally again.

    Find and take care of one plant promptly. Use 40% glyphosate (original solution or 10 times solution), 40% dipyridin, and puncture the false stem of the infected plant 10-40 cm above the ground (original solution or 10 times solution).

    Infuse or inject 8-10ml, 15- After 30 days, the diseased plant died and the banana head rotted. 

    Additionally, it can be manufactured from poison wood or 2,4-D stock solution coated with specific wood poison sticks. This method involves injecting 2 to 6 mg of poison per plant into the pseudostem of each infected plant, poisoning the diseased cluster, and waiting 21 days for it to decompose. The natural development of the nearby banana plants won't be impacted by this.

    Replanting banana seedlings in unhealthy plant holes won't spread the illness once more.

    All infected plants in the entire garden and the surrounding area in the old wards, especially in the lighter-condition banana plantations, must be treated or dug up and replanted in the aforementioned manner within one month of the winter in order to completely eradicate the disease.

    To give the diseased plant a good control effect, locate it whenever possible in the future and remove it whenever possible.


    3. Plant disease-resistant bananas, varieties and banana test-tube seedlings

    After the early removal of sick plants in banana gardens with an incidence of more than 30%, healthy seedlings would also be impacted in significant numbers.

    Plant disease-resistant types like plantains and pink plantains in this situation, along with test-tube seedlings and bananas, after the beam-top disease has been totally eradicated.


    4. Aphid management

    Aphid prevention and control must be prompt and thorough to stop the spread of disease vectors. It is possible to employ 40% dimethoate and 50% aphid mist. Once every month, 10% of Anlvbao Daofengsan, endosulfan, lesiben, etc. can be regulated.

    When applied to the veins of banana leaves, a medical sachet containing aldicarb, sulfamethoxa, chlorfenapyr, isopropamid, carbamazepine, long-acting phosphorus, and chlordiazepam has a good anti-aphid action.


    Aphids can be effectively controlled by injecting 0.05–0.2 ml of long-acting phosphorus stock solution into banana stems every three to four weeks.


    5. Improve banana garden cultivation management

    Change the use of urea to compound fertilisers, increase the use of organic fertilisers and phosphorus and potassium fertilisers, and increase the potassium and nitrogen fertiliser ratio to 1.5-3:1.

    Applying the right amount of lime and magnesium oxide to the acidic soil of a banana plantation may help to lessen damage and increase the plant's resistance to disease.





    Author's Bio

    Doctor Shawna Reason, Virologist
    Dr. Shawna Reason
    Name: Shawna Reason

    Education: MBBS, MD

    Occupation: Medical Doctor / Virologist 

    Specialization: Medical Science, Micro Biology / Virology, Natural Treatment

    Experience: 15 Years as a Medical Practitioner

    About Me | Linkedin | Quora Profile | Medium Profile | Twitter



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