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AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome


AIDS the syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency

The term "AIDS" (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) refers to a serious infectious disease brought on by HIV infection (HIV virus). The immune system of the body can be attacked by the HIV virus. It attacks the most crucial CD4T lymphocytes in the human immune system, decimating a sizable portion of these cells and rendering the organism immuno-deficient as a result. As a result, the mortality rate is high and the human body is vulnerable to a wide range of diseases. The typical time that HIV spends incubating in a human body is 8-9 years. Before AIDS, people might function normally for many years without experiencing any symptoms.


    What causes AIDS to cough?

    AIDS patients are more likely to have multiple infections of multiple organs, and they are also prone to tuberculosis and pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.


    Basic Information

    Name in English: AIDS

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is known as in English.

    A visit to the infectious diseases department

    A number of groups: young people

    Typical causes: HIV infection is the cause

    Common signs include a persistent fever, weakness, nocturnal sweats, and enlarged lymph nodes all over the body.

    Contagious: Definitely

    Way for transmitting:    Sexual contact, blood, and mother-to-child transfer are the main modes of transmission.


    Table of Content

        1. Cause

        2. Clinical manifestations

        3. Inspection

        4. Diagnosis

        5. Treatment

        6. Prevention

        7. New strains

    The cause of AIDS

    According to research, immigrants from Africa are thought to have brought AIDS to the United States. 
    On June 5, 1981, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published the case report of five AIDS patients in the Weekly Morbidity and Mortality Weekly, which was the first official record of AIDS in the world.

    The illness was given the name AIDS in 1982. After that, AIDS rapidly spread across all continents.


    In 1985, a foreigner traveling to Asia in China fell ill and quickly died after being admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital. It was later confirmed that he died of AIDS. It's possible that this was Asia's first AIDS case.

    Those with HIV will eventually develop into AIDS patients after an incubation period of several years, or potentially ten years or more.

    Various infections including shingles, oral mould infections, TB, and other particular enteritis, pneumonia, encephalitis, and serious infections from different pathogens like Candida, pneumocystis, etc. are all caused by the body's dramatic reduction in resistance.

    Malignant tumours frequently develop in the later stages, along with long-term consumption and systemic failure, which can result in death.

    There is currently no viable treatment for AIDS and no effective vaccine to prevent it, despite the enormous efforts of several medical researchers worldwide.

    In China and India, AIDS has been classified as a Class B legal infectious disease and is one of the infectious diseases under surveillance for border health.


    HIV AIDS Symptoms or Clinical Manifestations

    What are the AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) (Clinical Manifestation) Symptoms?

    The age of onset for 80% of cases, between 18 and 45 years old, corresponds to the age range with the most active sexual activity and accounts for the majority of cases among young adults.

    They frequently have unusual illnesses such pneumocystis pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, atypical mycobacteria, and fungal infections after contracting AIDS.

    The first few years to over ten years following HIV infection are free of any clinical symptoms.

    Patients who get AIDS may have a variety of clinical symptoms.

    Common cold and flu-like symptoms, such as generalised weariness, appetite loss, fever, etc., are usually present at first.

    Day by day, the disease's symptoms worsen, including white candida infections of the skin and mucous membranes, herpes simplex, banded herpes, purple spots, blood blisters, congested spots, etc.

    Internal organs are later gradually invaded, and a persistent, unknown-cause fever lasts for up to 3 to 4 months.

    Coughing, shortness of breath, breathing difficulties, chronic diarrhoea, bloody stools, liver and splenomegaly, aggravated by malignant tumours, etc. are possible symptoms.

    Although clinical symptoms might vary and are complex, not every patient will experience them.

    Breathing problems, chest pain, coughing, etc. frequently follow a lung invasion.

    In addition to causing prolonged diarrhoea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and other symptoms, gastrointestinal problems can also affect the nervous and cardiovascular systems.


    1. What are the AIDS-related symptoms in general?

    Prolonged severe systemic lymphadenopathy, a persistent fever, fatigue, and nocturnal sweats.

    Particularly noticeable are the swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, and groyne.

    The lymph nodes are hard, mobile, and painless, with a diameter of greater than 1 cm.

    Within three months, the weight loss might drop by up to 40% and reach more than 10%. The patient's weight reduction is particularly evident.


    2. What respiratory signs and symptoms does AIDS have?

    Chest pain, breathing difficulties, a persistent cough, and, in more serious cases, bloody sputum.


    3. What are the AIDS-related gastrointestinal symptoms?

    Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, anorexia, appetite loss, and, in more serious cases, blood in the stool

    This type of diarrhoea is not responsive to the medications frequently prescribed to treat digestive system illnesses.


    4. What are the AIDS-related neurological symptoms?

    Dizziness, headaches, sluggishness of movement, dementia, mental retardation, convulsions, and other mental illnesses are some examples.


    5. Mucosal and skin damage

    shingles, mouth and throat mucous membrane inflammation and ulceration, herpes simplex


    6. Tumors

    A number of cancers can manifest, and Kaposi's sarcoma can have a red or purple rash, papules, and invasive tumours on the skin.

    Testing AIDS

    What AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) Tests are Available?

    1. Body immune system assessment

    Specifically, peripheral blood cells, CD4 200/l, CD4 / CD8 1.0, and the depletion of CD4 + T lymphocytes are to blame (1.25 - 2.1 for normal people).

    A delayed allergy skin test came out negative.

    Additionally, the response to mitogen stimulation is weak.

    Activity of NK cells is decreased.

    Pathogen Inspection 


    2. Pathogen Examination

    Pathogens of diverse pathogenic diseases are examined such as the histological analysis of malignant tumours and the PCR detection of associated infections.

    3. Tests for HIV antibodies

    The first three of these are frequently used in screening tests, while the last two are typically used in confirmation tests. Other examples include the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, gelatin particle agglutination test, immunofluorescence detection method, immunoblotting detection method, and radioimmunoprecipitation method.

    4. PCR technology to detect HIV virus


    What is the AIDS, or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, diagnosis?

    1. Acute phase

    Diagnostic standards: The diagnosis can be made using both laboratory tests of HIV antibodies moving from negative to positive or just laboratory testing of HIV antibodies changing from negative to positive if the patient has an epidemiological history and impending clinical signs.

    At the initial screening test six weeks after infection, over 80% of HIV-infected individuals can show antibodies, and after 12 weeks, almost 100% of HIV-infected individuals can show antibodies.

    Only a small percentage of individuals can find antibodies within 3 or 6 months of infection.t antibodies within 3 months or 6 months after infection. 

    2. The asymptomatic phase

    Having an epidemiological history, diagnosing as HIV antibody positive, or only using a laboratory test to determine HIV antibody positivity are all acceptable diagnostic criteria.


    3. AIDS period

    1. A prolonged, unexplained, irregular fever that is above 38 °C.

    2. More than three times a day, for more than a month, people have chronic diarrhoea.

    3. A weight decrease of over 10% in just six months.

    4. Repeated oral Candida albicans infection.

    5. Herpes simplex or herpes zoster infections that recur often.

    6. Pneumonia due to pneumocystis (PCP).

    7. Recurrent pneumonia caused by bacteria.

    8. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease or active tuberculosis

    9. Serious fungus infection

    10. Central nervous system lesions that take up a lot of room.

    11. Young and middle-aged persons who get dementia.

    12. A CMV infection that is active.

    13. Encephalitis caused by toxoplasma.

    14. Infection with penicillium.

    15. Sepsis that comes back.

    16. Internal organ, skin, or mucous membrane Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphomas.



    Treatment of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    What is the AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) Treatment?


    Worldwide, there are currently few effective medications available to treat HIV infection.

    At this point, the treatment's objectives are to: • Decrease viral load as much as possible and permanently.

    • To restore and preserve immunological functionality.

    • Enhance the quality of life.

    • To lower mortality and morbidity associated with HIV.

     

    The focus of this disease's treatment is on comprehensive care, which includes:

    1. General therapy

    2. antiviral medication

    3. Immune system restoration or enhancement therapy

    4. Care for cancerous tumours and opportunistic infections


    1. How is AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) generally treated?

    Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or HIV do not require isolation therapy.

    People with asymptomatic HIV infection can nonetheless carry on with their regular lives and jobs.

    A specific antiviral regimen should be followed, and any changes in the condition should be constantly watched.

    Patients who have pre-AIDS or who have already got AIDS should be given a high-calorie, multivitamin diet and should be given attention to rest in accordance with their condition.

    Intravenous fluids should be given as a supplement to those who are unable to eat.

    To maintain hydration and electrolyte balance, strengthen supportive therapies such blood transfusions and nutritional support therapies.


    2. What is AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) Antiviral Therapy?

    Antiviral therapy is the key to AIDS treatment. With the use of highly effective antiretroviral combination therapy, the efficacy of anti-HIV has been greatly improved, and the quality of life and prognosis of patients have been significantly improved.

    Prevention of AIDS

    The most crucial thing is to take precautions because there is no effective vaccine against AIDS.

    The technique is:

    1. Continue to practise self-love and cleaning rather than prostitution, and steer clear of risky sexual behaviour.

    2. It is strictly banned to use drugs, and syringes should never be shared.

    3. Only utilise blood products with a doctor's permission and only transfuse or use them as directed.

    4. Personal products like toothbrushes, razors, shavers, etc. should not be borrowed or shared.

    5. The use of condoms is one of the most effective measures to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS in sex life.

    6. Cut off the transmission of AIDS by avoiding direct contact with the blood, sperm, and breast milk of those who have it.




    Safew Sex for Prevention of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome AIDS

    Fresh strain

    On November 6, 2019, a research team led by US researchers obtained the genome sequence of a new strain of HIV, and confirmed the new strain for the first time 19 years after the publication of the HIV-related naming guidelines. 

    This novel strain was determined to have a L subtype according to a study that was published in the American Journal of AIDS.

    The majority of HIV strains infected people worldwide are of the HIV-1 type, with the M group being the most prevalent.




    Author's Bio

    Doctor Shawna Reason, Virologist
    Dr. Shawna Reason
    Name: Shawna Reason

    Education: MBBS, MD

    Occupation: Medical Doctor / Virologist 

    Specialization: Medical Science, Micro Biology / Virology, Natural Treatment

    Experience: 15 Years as a Medical Practitioner

    About Me | Linkedin | Quora Profile | Medium Profile | Twitter


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