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AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome


AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

Meaning of AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): is a very harmful infectious disease caused by infection with HIV (HIV virus). HIV is a virus that can attack the body's immune system. It takes the most important CD4T lymphocytes in the human immune system as its main target of attack, destroying a large number of these cells and causing the body to lose its immune function. Therefore, the human body is susceptible to various diseases, and malignant tumors can occur, and the mortality rate is high. The incubation period of HIV in the human body is 8-9 years on average. Before AIDS, people can live and work for many years without any symptoms.

    Why does AIDS cause a cough?

    AIDS patients can have multiple infections of multiple organs, and they are also prone to tuberculosis and pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    Basic Information

    English name:    AIDS

    English alias:    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Visiting Department:    Infectious Diseases

    Multiple groups:    Young people

    Common causes:    Due to HIV infection

    Common symptoms:    Sustained fever, weakness, night sweats, and swollen lymph nodes throughout the body

    Contagious:    Yes

    Way for spreading:    Sexual contact, blood, mother-to-child transmission

    Table of Content

        1 Cause

        2 Clinical manifestations

        3 Inspection

        4 Diagnosis

        5 Treatment

        6 Prevention

        7 New strains

    AIDS Etiology

    Research suggests that AIDS originated in Africa and was brought to the United States by immigrants. On June 5, 1981, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published the case report of five AIDS patients in the Weekly Morbidity and Mortality Weekly, which was the first official record of AIDS in the world.
    In 1982, the disease was named AIDS. Soon after, AIDS quickly spread to all continents.

    In 1985, a foreigner traveling to Asia in China fell ill and quickly died after being admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital. It was later confirmed that he died of AIDS. This was perhaps the first case of AIDS in Asia.

    HIV-infected people will develop into AIDS patients after several years, or even 10 years or longer incubation period.

    Due to the extreme decline of the body's resistance, various infections such as shingles, oral mold infections, tuberculosis, and other special Enteritis, pneumonia, encephalitis caused by pathogenic microorganisms, severe infections caused by various pathogens such as Candida, pneumocystis, etc.

    In the later stage, malignant tumors often occur, and long-term consumption occurs, and even systemic failure leads to death.

    Despite the tremendous efforts of many medical researchers around the world, no effective medicine for curing AIDS has been developed, and no effective vaccine for prevention has been developed. 

    AIDS has been listed as a Class B legal infectious disease in India and China, and has been listed as one of the infectious diseases in frontier health surveillance.
    HIV AIDS Symptoms or Clinical Manifestations

    What are the (Clinical Manifestation) Symptoms of AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)?

    The incidence is mostly in young adults, 80% of the age of onset is between 18 and 45 years old, that is, the age group with more active sexual life. 

    After being infected with AIDS, they often suffer from rare diseases such as pneumocystis pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, atypical mycobacteria and fungal infections.
    After HIV infection, the first few years to more than 10 years without any clinical manifestations.
    Once progressing to AIDS, patients can show various clinical manifestations. 

    Generally, the initial symptoms are like common cold and flu, and there may be general fatigue, loss of appetite, fever, etc. 

    With the aggravation of the disease, the symptoms increase day by day, such as skin and mucous membrane infections with white candida, herpes simplex, banding Herpes, purple spots, blood blisters, congestion spots, etc.
    Later gradually invade the internal organs, with persistent fever of unknown cause, which can last up to 3 to 4 months.

    There can be cough, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, persistent diarrhea, bloody stool, liver and splenomegaly, complicated with malignant tumors, etc.

    Clinical symptoms are complex and variable, but not all of these symptoms occur in every patient.
    Difficulty in breathing, chest pain, coughing, etc. often occur in the invasion of the lungs. 

    Gastrointestinal violations can cause persistent diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, etc. and can also invade the nervous system and cardiovascular system.

    1. What are the General Symptoms of AIDS?

    Sustained fever, weakness, night sweats, and persistent extensive systemic lymphadenopathy.
    In particular, the enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, armpits and groin are more obvious.
    The diameter of the lymph nodes is more than 1 cm, and the texture is firm, movable, and painless.
    The weight loss can reach more than 10% within 3 months, and can be reduced by up to 40%. The weight loss of the patient is particularly obvious.

    2. What are the Respiratory symptoms of AIDS?

    Long-term cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and bloody sputum in severe cases.

    3. What are the Gastrointestinal symptoms of AIDS

    Appetite loss, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and blood in the stool in severe cases.
    The drugs commonly used to treat digestive tract infections are not effective for this type of diarrhea.

    4. What are the Neurological symptoms of AIDS?

    Dizziness, headache, slow response, mental retardation, mental disorders, convulsions, hemiplegia, dementia, etc.

    5. Skin and mucosal damage

    Herpes simplex, shingles, inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes of the mouth and pharynx.

    6. Tumor

    A variety of malignancies can occur, and Kaposi's sarcoma on the surface can be seen with red or purplish rash, papules, and invasive masses.

    Testing AIDS

    What are the Tests for AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)?

    1. Body immune function test

    It is mainly due to the depletion of CD4 + T lymphocytes and the significant reduction of peripheral blood lymphocytes, CD4 <200 / μl, CD4 / CD8 <1.0, (1.25 - 2.1 for normal people). 
    There is delayed allergy skin test negative. 
    Also, there is low response to mitogen stimulation. 
    NK cell activity is reduced.

    2. Pathogen Examination

    Examination of pathogens of various pathogenic infections
    Such as the detection of related pathogens by PCR, histopathological examination of malignant tumors.

    3. HIV antibody testing

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, gelatin particle agglutination test, immunofluorescence detection method, immunoblotting detection method, radioimmunoprecipitation method, etc., the first three of which are often used in screening tests, and the latter two are used in confirmation tests.

    4. PCR technology to detect HIV virus


    What is the diagnosis for AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome?

    1. Acute phase

    Diagnostic criteria: The patient has an epidemiological history and clinical manifestations in the near future, and can be diagnosed by combining laboratory HIV antibodies from negative to positive, or only laboratory tests of HIV antibodies changing from negative to positive. 

    About 80% of HIV-infected people can detect antibodies at the initial screening test 6 weeks after infection, and almost 100% of HIV-infected people can detect antibodies after 12 weeks. 

    Only a few patients can detect antibodies within 3 months or 6 months after infection. 

    2. Asymptomatic period

    Diagnostic criteria: Have an epidemiological history, diagnose with HIV antibody positive, or just laboratory test for HIV antibody positive diagnosis.

    3. AIDS period


    1.  Unexplained persistent irregular fever above 38 ,> 1 month.
    2.  the number of chronic diarrhea is more than 3 times / day,> 1 month.
    3.  Weight loss of more than 10% within 6 months.
    4.   Repeated oral Candida albicans infection.
    5.  Recurrent herpes simplex virus infection or herpes zoster virus infection.
    6.  Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP).
    7.  Recurrent bacterial pneumonia.
    8.  Active tuberculosis or non-tuberculous mycobacterium disease.
    9.  Deep fungal infection.
    10.  Space-occupying lesions of the central nervous system.
    11.  Dementia in young and middle-aged people.
    12.  Active cytomegalovirus infection.
    13.  Toxoplasma encephalopathy.
    14.  Penicillium infection.
    15.  Recurrent sepsis.
    16.  Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma of the skin, mucous membranes or internal organs.


    Treatment of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    What is the Treatment for AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)?


    At present, there is still a lack of effective drugs to cure HIV infection worldwide.

    The goals of treatment at this stage are: 
    • To reduce viral load to the greatest extent and lastingly.
    • To rebuild and maintain immune function.
    • Improve quality of life.
    • To reduce HIV-related morbidity and mortality. 


    The treatment of this disease emphasizes comprehensive treatment, including: 

    1.  General treatment
    2.  Antiviral treatment
    3.  Treatment to restore or improve immune function
    4.  Treatment of opportunistic infections and malignant tumors

    1. What is the General treatment for AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)?

    There is no need for isolation treatment for HIV-infected patients or patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 

    For people with asymptomatic HIV infection, they can still maintain normal work and life. 
    Antiviral treatment should be performed according to the specific condition, and changes in the condition should be closely monitored. 

    Patients with pre-AIDS or those who have developed AIDS should pay attention to rest according to their condition and give them a high-calorie, multi-vitamin diet.

     Those who cannot eat should be supplemented with intravenous fluids. 

    Strengthen supportive therapies, including blood transfusions and nutritional support therapies to maintain water and electrolyte balance.

    2. What is Antiviral Therapy for AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)?

    Antiviral therapy is the key to AIDS treatment. With the use of highly effective antiretroviral combination therapy, the efficacy of anti-HIV has been greatly improved, and the quality of life and prognosis of patients have been significantly improved.
    prevention

    There is no effective vaccine against AIDS, so the most important thing is to take preventive measures. The method is:

    1. Persist in cleansing and self-love, not prostitution, prostitution, and avoid high-risk sexual behavior.
    2. It is strictly forbidden to take drugs and do not share syringes with others.
    3. Don't transfusion or use blood products without authorization, use it under the guidance of a doctor.
    4. Do not borrow or share personal items such as toothbrushes, razors, shavers, etc.
    5. The use of condoms is one of the most effective measures to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS in sex life.
    6. Avoid direct contact with blood, semen, and breast milk of AIDS patients and cut off their transmission.

    Safew Sex for Prevention of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome AIDS

    New strain

    On November 6, 2019, a research team led by US researchers obtained the genome sequence of a new strain of HIV, and confirmed the new strain for the first time 19 years after the publication of the HIV-related naming guidelines. 

    A research paper published in the American Journal of AIDS showed that this new strain belongs to HIV-1 type M group and was confirmed to be L subtype. 

    The HIV strains infected by most patients in the world belong to HIV-1 type, of which M group is the most common. 



    Author's Bio

    Doctor Shawna Reason, Virologist
    Dr. Shawna Reason
    Name: Shawna Reason

    Education: MBBS, MD

    Occupation: Medical Doctor / Virologist 

    Specialization: Medical Science, Micro Biology / Virology, Natural Treatment

    Experience: 15 Years as a Medical Practitioner

    About Me | Linkedin | Quora Profile | Medium Profile | Twitter


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