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Tobacco Mosaic Virus TMV Symptoms Control and Prevention. Pathogen

Symptoms Pathogen Disease Control and Prevention of TMV - Tobacco mosaic virus introduction

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), also translated as tobacco mosaic virus, is a single-stranded RNA virus that specifically infects plants, especially tobacco and other solanaceous plants, which can make these infected leaves look like Mottled and stained, hence the name (mosaic is mosaic, meaning collage). At the end of the 19th century, people were known to have certain diseases that threatened the survival of tobacco crops, but it was not until 1930 that the existence of this virus was known. It is the pathogen of tobacco mosaic disease and belongs to the Tobamovirus group.

Tobacco mosaic disease and tomato mosaic disease have long been known. Mosaic symptoms appear on the leaves, the growth is in a bad state, and the leaves are often deformed.

 In 1883, German scientist Adolf Mayer discovered that tobacco mosaic disease can be transferred by extracting the juice of infected leaves and applying it to healthy leaves.

 After failing to find disease-causing microorganisms in the juice, Mayer believes that the disease-causing microorganism is a very small bacteria that is not visible under the microscope.
I.                  Iwanowski (D.I. Iwanowski) first proved it in 1892 The disease was caused by a filtering pathogen, but Ivanovsky insisted that filterable bacteria or toxins secreted it caused tobacco mosaic disease.

II.               in 1897, Dutch botanist Bayerinck (Martinus Beijerinck) A series of classic experiments confirmed that the source of infection in the filtrate can be replicated. 
        In fact, the pathogen only replicates in the host it infects. 
        In a more in-depth experiment, Bayerinck discovered that this pathogen is not like bacteria that can be cultivated in test tubes or petri dishes with nutrients. 
        He pretends that this is a reproducible particle that is smaller and simpler than bacteria. 
        Bayerinck is therefore recognized as the first scientist to propose the concept of virus.

III.            In 1935, Bayeklin's guess was confirmed by Stanley (W.M. Stanley), who believed that the pathogen was a protein and first isolated virus-like crystals from the juice of the diseased leaves in 1935. 
        It was learned that this protein also contains nucleic acids And sure that the pathogen is this virus. 
        The virus is extremely stable, because it can multiply in a large number of diseased leaves, so 2 grams of crystals can be purified from 1 liter of juice extracted from diseased leaves. The viral plasmid is a rod-shaped body with a length of 300 nm and a diameter of 15 nm. It has a single-stranded (+) RNA with a molecular weight of 2 × 106 Daltons. 
        The nucleic acid is surrounded by 2130 protein subunits with a molecular weight of 17530 Daltons. 
        The host range as a pathogen is very wide, and it is now known to be parasitic to 198 plants in 22 families of monocotyledons.

What are the Symptoms of Tobacco Mosaic Virus?

When tobacco mosaic virus infects tobacco plants, it will destroy the tissue structure of the plants, and the most damaging to the young leaves will make the young leaves appear.

What is the Symptom of Open Veins due to Tobacco mosaic virus?

Symptoms of open veins, that is, translucent phenomena appear in the lateral and branch veins of the leaf. 
Tobacco mosaic virus multiplies in tobacco cells. Viral RNA will seriously affect the normal division of tobacco cells, resulting in malformation and fission of tobacco mesophyll cells. 

Propagation or suppression, the symptoms of uneven leaf thickness, spots appear on the leaves, showing different areas of yellow and green, with the further infection of mosaic virus, gradually lead to necrosis of the leaf tissue. 
Tobacco leaves have a large area of ​​brown necrosis spots, the shape of the leaves is twisted and shrunk. 
This phenomenon is especially obvious on the old leaves, the serious diseased leaves are raised to form bubbles, and the edges are curved inward. 

Early-onset tobacco plants are severely dwarfed. Tobacco plants do not grow normally. They do not bloom normally during maturity. They have poor resistance and are easily disturbed by the outside world.
The leaves and flowers and fruits are easy to fall off. The amount of seeds is small and generally not normal. Sprouts grow.
This virus may also affect other types of plants.
Tobacco Mosaic Virus on Tomato Plants
Tobacco Mosaic Virus on Tomato Plant

What is Tobacco mosaic virus Pathogen?

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a virus disease.
As many as 350 species, the virus particles are straight rod-shaped, 300 nm × 18 nm in size, with strong pathogenicity and stress resistance. 

The virus can survive for 52 years in dried tobacco leaves. Has infectious activity. 

The passivation temperature is 90-93 for 10 minutes, the dilution limit is 1000000 times, and the in vitro drug retention period is 72-96 hours. 
It has been pathogenic for several years under sterile conditions, and has survived for more than 30 years in xerotic tissues.

There are different strains of the virus. There are four strains in China: common strains, tomato strains, macular strains and bead spots. 
The diversity of symptoms due to differences in pathogenicity and compound infection with other viruses.

What is the Tobacco mosaic virus transmission route?

TMV can overwinter on a variety of plants. The primary source of infection is disease-carrying debris and other host plants. 
In addition, under-decomposed poisonous fertilizers can also cause initial infection. Spread mainly through juice. Slightly rubbing the diseased leaves to cause micro wounds, the virus can invade, not from the large wounds and self.

Then the orifice intruded. After invasion, they propagate in the parenchyma cells, and then enter the vascular bundle tissue to infect the whole plant. 
Under the condition of 22-28 , the infected plants begin to show symptoms after 7-14 days.

The field is reinfested by rubbing diseased seedlings with healthy seedlings or agricultural operations.

In addition, locusts, tobacco insects and other insects in chewing mouthparts in tobacco fields can also spread TMV virus. 
The appropriate temperature for TMV to occur is 25-27 ° C, invasion above 38-40 ° C is inhibited, and symptoms above 27 ° C or below 10 ° C disappear.

Pathogenesis of Tobacco mosaic virus

What is the Pathogenesis of Tobacco mosaic virus?

Tobacco common mosaic virus disease is one of the main diseases of tobacco. 
It is widely distributed in the majority of tobacco areas in China, especially in the southern tobacco area. 
It is more common and increasingly worse.

The general incidence rate is 5% -20%, which often causes severe dwarfing of plants.
The loss can reach more than 50%, seriously harming the yield and quality of tobacco leaves, and causing huge economic losses to the tobacco industry.

Tobacco common mosaic disease is the most susceptible disease in the tobacco seedling stage and the early stage of field growth, mainly occurring from the seedling bed stage to the field bud stage. Temperature and light greatly affect the spread and epidemic speed of the disease.

What is Tobacco mosaic disease?

Strong light can shorten the incubation period. Continuous cropping or interplanting with Solanaceae crops increased the source of poison, and the incidence and degree of incidence increased significantly.

Unhygienic cultivation is an important cause of epidemic. 
Touching between sick and healthy plants, applying unrotted organic fertilizer, and cultivating the soil with virus can increase the virus infection. The soil is hardened, the climate is arid, and plots with severe nematodes in the field are seriously ill.

What is the situation of Tobacco mosaic virus in Tobacco Growing Countries?

China has a long history of tobacco production, and tobacco is one of the important economic crops in China. 
Tobacco virus disease is an important type of disease on tobacco.

Tobacco virus disease is widespread, widely distributed, and serious in tobacco cultivation areas around the world. 
It seriously affects the yield and quality of tobacco.
Up to now, 47 viruses have been found to infect tobacco, and more than 20 are common.

There are 17 tobacco virus diseases found in China.
After the tobacco is infected with the virus, the chlorophyll is destroyed, the photosynthesis is weakened, the leaf growth is inhibited, the leaves are small and deformed, which seriously affects the yield and intrinsic quality.

Tobacco virus disease caused by TMV infection of tobacco is the most common and most harmful disease in tobacco in China.
The tobacco pest control and innovation team based on nearly 30 years of statistics. 

Through whole genome sequencing and Bayesian system dynamic analysis method, analyzed is the complete sequence of 56 TMV isolates in 17 tobacco leaf producing areas in China for the first time identified China.

 The characteristics of the spatiotemporal diffusion of TMV on tobacco have found that the two large group evolutions of TMV in China are concentrated in the mid-1990s and the beginning of this century.

What is the Tobacco mosaic virus detection method?

In order to reduce and reduce the harm of viruses to the tobacco industry, the establishment of efficient and sensitive detection technology is a prerequisite for solving basic problems such as early identification of disease resistance.

This will help to study the transmission routes and occurrence rules of viral diseases and formulate prevention and control for science. The strategy lays the foundation.

Anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) monoclonal antibody

What is Monoclonal antibody technology of TMV Detection?

Monoclonal antibody technology was used to obtain anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) monoclonal antibody, and the rapid development of tobacco mosaic virus was established through colloidal gold labeling technology.  
Rapid immunochromatography detection technology and SQUID magnetic quantitative measurement technology detection methods, and developed TMV colloidal gold rapid detection test paper for qualitative detection and TMV nano magnetic beads rapid detection test paper for quantitative detection, the detection sensitivity is 1ng / mL and 0.1 ng / mL, respectively. 

The established method is simple in operation, fast in sensitivity and good in specificity, and is an effective method for on-site screening of various TMV asymptomatic and diseased tobacco plants in tobacco seedlings.

What are the Tobacco mosaic virus control measures?

Taking tobacco plants as an object, strengthen the health cultivation of tobacco plants, cut off the transmission route, highlight resistance induction, and assist in the prevention and control measures of chemical agents.

Tobacco mosaic virus selects disease-resistant varieties
Select disease-resistant varieties with strong growth potential and rapid development, and adapt to local conditions such as Liao 44, 6315, Guanghuang 54, 176, Nc89, G80, 8611, etc. Pay attention to the selection of high-resistance varieties.

Tobacco mosaic virus prevention before transplantation

Remove the diseased plants and turn over the soil before winter. Use low temperature conditions such as frost, rain and snow in winter, and turn over the soil before winter to reduce the source of overwintering bacteria.

In the spring of the following year, the fine rakes were turned deeply to ripen the tillage layer, reduce the base of infection, and create conditions for healthy growth of tobacco. 
No intercropping or rotation with Solanaceae, Cruciferae crops, no serious tobacco plots for at least 2 years.

What is Tobacco mosaic virus seedling control?

At present, no highly resistant varieties that can be widely promoted have been found. In the seedling stage, the goal is to cultivate disease-free and strong seedlings, choose appropriate disinfection agents for floating seedlings, pay attention to the disinfection of the water body of the nursery pond and the blade cutter, and ensure the supply of nutrients.

Strengthen the management of seedling stage, smoking is prohibited during the operation, hands and tools should be disinfected, the greenhouse is managed by a dedicated person, and the entry of idlers and other people is prohibited.

Tobacco mosaic virus control during transplanting period
Early sowing and early planting can be properly carried out. Diseased seedlings are removed during transplanting, and seedlings are checked in time to ensure that the roots of the transplanted seedlings can contact the soil as much as possible. 

Actively promote the open planting technology of small seedlings to ensure the success of one-time transplanting and avoid cross-infection of multiple seedlings.

If the weather is dry when transplanting, pay attention to make up the water to promote the early growth of tobacco seedlings. 

What is the Process of Tobacco mosaic virus mass control?

 In the early stage of the disease, it can be sprayed with 22% Jinyebao WP 300 times solution, 1.5% Phytopathic No. 2 EC 1000 times solution or 2% Ningnanmycin solution 250 times solution. 

For areas where the virus disease is relatively light, attention should be paid to the addition of trace elements zinc, while the use of aminooligosaccharins and other induced resistance of tobacco to reduce the loss of virus disease caused by tobacco leaves.

What is Long-term control procedure of tobacco mosaic virus?

Do a good job of field hygiene management, pay attention to the regulation of fertilizer and water, and minimize the contact of tools, clothes, hands, etc. with tobacco leaves during field operations.

What is Tobacco mosaic virus topping stage control?

Note that the diseased plant and the healthy plant are topped separately. Top the healthy plant first and then the diseased plant. Topping should be done after the dew dries.

What is Tobacco mosaic virus harvesting period control?

Remove the bottom leaves in time and transport them to the treatment pond outside the tobacco field for centralized treatment to prevent the re-infestation caused by the diseased leaves left in the field. 

After the tobacco is harvested, the tobacco stalks should be removed in time and the field should be cleared.
If it is possible to plant rape, green manure, etc. it will be better and more active to reduce the presence of pathogens.

Author's Bio

Doctor Shawna Reason, Virologist
Dr. Shawna Reason
Name: Shawna Reason

Education: MBBS, MD

Occupation: Medical Doctor / Virologist 

Specialization: Medical Science, Micro Biology / Virology, Natural Treatment

Experience: 15 Years as a Medical Practitioner

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