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Banana Bunchy Top Virus Disease Spread

How does banana bunchy top virus disease spread?

Hazards: Banana bunchy top disease is caused by banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) and is one of the most important and devastating diseases in banana production. Early infection of plants will lead to serious disease of the plants and completely lose their economic value. In the middle and late stages of infection, although a certain yield can be obtained that year, the quality of the fruit has declined. 

It is common in Asia, with a general hazard rate of 5% to 10%, a serious 20% to 40%, or even higher. After adopting tissue culture seedling planting technology, the incidence rate decreased significantly.
It is mainly distributed in Asia and the South Pacific and a few African countries, and no reports have occurred so far in Central and South America and the Caribbean. 

BBTV is the most serious disease on bananas and plantains. 
It was widespread in Fiji in the early 20th century and in Australia in the 1920s, which devastated banana production. 
In New South Wales, banana production fell by an average of 90% due to illness in 1922.

Spreading of Banana Bunchy Top Virus Disease

What is the Method of Transmission of Banana Bunchy Top Virus Disease?

 The disease is mainly transmitted in the field in a semi-persistent manner by the banana cross-ephid Pentalonianigronervosa.

Field epidemics are mainly related to the overwintering poison source and the number of banana crosses aphid in the field. 
It can also be spread through long distance and large area through poisonous seedlings, tissue culture seedlings, buds and bulbs. 
It is not spread by soil, nor can it be spread by mechanical inoculation, so agronomic operations such as pruning will not spread the virus.

Toxicity mediator

 In the natural state, it is semi-permanently or persistently transmitted by the banana aphid Pentalonianigronervosa. 
The circulation period is 48h, the shortest poisoning time is 17h, the shortest poisoning period is 1.5 - 2h, and the poison retention period is 13d.
After molting, the virus transmission ability is maintained. 
The nymph transmission efficiency is higher than that of the adult. The spread of the virus does not depend on any helper virus.
Transmission of Banana Bunchy Top Virus Disease

Seedling-transmitted plants

 Asexual propagation material of banana and other Musa plants.

Natural host

Banana Musanana and other Musa plants. Such as plantain Musasapientum, abaca M.textilis, long-leaf plantain, pointed bract leaf plantain, Bank's plantain M.banksi and elephant leg plantain Enseteglaucum.

Artificial inoculation of infestable plants: Most of the edible species in the Eumusa population of the plantain genus, as well as the edible species of the Sawaqa population in Australia, New Zealand and the islands of the Southwest Pacific can be infected.

Ginger and taro are not the host of banana bunchy top virus. In recent years, ginger flower Hedychiumcoronarium and Cannaindica are also considered to be indefinite hosts, and the latter plant is defined as a host because it can produce symptoms similar to bunch tops in the field. 

However, the inoculation test proved that the canna genus Cannaspp., Strelitzia Strelitziasp., Potato Solanumtuberosum and corn Zeamays cannot be infected by the virus.

Studies have shown that bananas, pink plantains, and plantains are the hosts of banana bunchy top virus, but the other 24 test plants such as canna, taro, Yanshan ginger, plantain, turmeric, vinca and melon are not The host of the virus. 
The study also believes that in the banana-producing areas of Fujian Province, the main source of infection of banana bunchy top disease is banana diseased plants, while diseased plants such as pink plantain and plantain can establish and spread the disease in the disease area for a long time Important role.

Infection Cycle of Banana Bunchy Top Virus Disease

Infection cycle

The primary source of infection in the new planting area is poisonous buds and seedlings. 
The toxicity of seedlings determines the severity of the new area. Some studies have pointed out that the new planting area is adjacent to the disease garden 50-100m, and the incidence rate is 88% after 1 year, and 67% of the new diseased plants in the new planted area are within 20m around the old plant. 
The diseased plants in the epidemic area or common plant area are repeatedly transmitted through banana cross vein aphid.

Diseases and environment and epidemic

 The occurrence of diseases is closely related to the number of banana cross-vessel aphid and the number of poisonous plants.
In the dry and rainy season, it is severe due to the appearance of winged aphids.
In banana gardens, the amount of banana cross-veined aphids gradually increased from October to the peak in January-February and the peak in May. 

Thick green young plants or medium and small seedlings are most susceptible to this disease. 
Banana gardens are out of control, weeds are overgrown, and there are many diseased plants, which will significantly increase the prevalence of diseases.

Author's Bio

Doctor Shawna Reason, Virologist
Dr. Shawna Reason
Name: Shawna Reason

Education: MBBS, MD

Occupation: Medical Doctor / Virologist 

Specialization: Medical Science, Micro Biology / Virology, Natural Treatment

Experience: 15 Years as a Medical Practitioner

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